How to Test Yourself to Estimate Your COPD Risk

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States , behind only heart disease and cancer, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But do you know your COPD risk?

Woman with breathing difficulties.
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Questions to Assess Your COPD Risk

Early diagnosis leads to earlier COPD treatment and a better chance of survival. These six questions can help you assess your risk. The questionnaire is only the first step in obtaining an accurate diagnosis and is not meant to replace specific medical advice from a qualified healthcare professional. Once you answer the questions, you can then discuss the results with your healthcare provider for further evaluation.

Are you 40 years of age or older?

In general, the older you are the greater your risk for COPD. Most people don't get diagnosed until they're in their 50s or 60s, but sometimes, due to genetics, people can be diagnosed at a much younger age.

Have you been exposed to airway irritants such as cigarette smoke or other potentially dangerous fumes?

Although cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD, environmental and occupational exposure to other types of airway irritants also places you at risk . A detailed history of your exposure to "noxious stimuli," such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and workplace irritants is an important part of any risk assessment associated with COPD.

Do you get short of breath more than other people in your age group?

Dyspnea, or shortness of breath, is the hallmark symptom of COPD and is generally the most commonly reported symptom. In COPD, dyspnea can be defined as the sensation of having the urge to breathe, but not being able to do so fully. It is a direct result of lack of oxygen in the bloodstream. If your dyspnea is persistent, has gotten worse over time and gets more pronounced when you exert yourself, it may be associated with COPD. Notify your healthcare provider if this sounds like you.

Do you cough throughout the day on most days?

Coughing is a defense mechanism developed by the body in an attempt to keep the airways free of mucus or foreign debris. People with COPD often develop a chronic cough; in fact, it is one of the most common reasons that they see their healthcare provider. A chronic cough is long-term, persistent and does not respond well to medical treatment. It may be intermittent and non-productive, meaning it does not produce mucus.

It may be caused by a lung infection or from airway irritants such as cigarette smoke or air pollution. A chronic cough may, or may not be, indicative of a serious, underlying lung condition like COPD, and warrants further investigation from your healthcare provider.

Do you cough up mucus or phlegm from your lungs most days?

Mucus and phlegm are substances produced by the lungs that are normally expelled by coughing or clearing of the throat. People with COPD often produce more mucus and phlegm than the average, healthy person but they may have great difficulty expelling it from their lungs. When mucus collects in the airways and lungs, it becomes a breeding ground for bacteria to multiply. This often leads to lung infection, one of the primary causes of COPD exacerbation. Any amount of chronic mucus production may be indicative of COPD.

Does anyone in your family have COPD?

A family history of COPD or other respiratory ailments places you at greater risk for COPD. A small percentage of people also have a genetic form of emphysema that is caused by the lack of the protective protein Alpha-1-antitrypsin, normally produced by the liver. This condition can be easily diagnosed with a blood test. Your family history is important to discuss with your healthcare provider to help form or rule out, an accurate diagnosis of COPD.

Calculating Your Self-Quiz Results and Seeing a Healthcare Provider

If you answered yes to one or two of these questions and are having breathing problems, make an appointment with your healthcare provider as soon as possible to discuss the possible causes of your symptoms.

If you answered yes to three or more of these questions, your breathing problems may be related to COPD. The more "yes" answers, the more likely it is that COPD is behind your symptoms. Don't wait! Make an appointment with your healthcare provider today to talk about your symptoms and undergo a simple breathing test called spirometry that will help your healthcare provider reach an accurate diagnosis.

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5 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Pleasants RA, Heidari K, Wheaton AG, et al. Targeting Persons With or At High Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by State-based Surveillance. COPD. 2015;12(6):680-9.

  2. Pleasants RA, Riley IL, Mannino DM. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016;11:2475-2496. doi:10.2147/COPD.S79077

  3. Koo HK, Park SW, Park JW, et al. Chronic cough as a novel phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018;13:1793-1801. doi:10.2147/COPD.S153821

  4. Halpin DM, Miravitlles M, Metzdorf N, Celli B. Impact and prevention of severe exacerbations of COPD: a review of the evidence. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:2891-2908. doi:10.2147/COPD.S139470

  5. Torres-durán M, Lopez-campos JL, Barrecheguren M, et al. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: outstanding questions and future directions. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018;13(1):114. doi:10.1186/s13023-018-0856-9

Additional Reading
  • Martinez, F. J., Raczek, A. E., Seifer, F. D., Conoscenti, C. S., Curtice, T. G. & D'Eletto, T., et al. Development and Initial Validation of a Self-Scored COPD Population Screener Questionnaire. Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 5:2, 85-95. April 2008.
  • The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Updated 2011.