What Is Asthma?

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Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes episodes of difficult breathing. When you have asthma, your airways are very sensitive and may react to a number of different triggers, such as smoke, pollens, or infections. This leads to constricted and inflamed airways that cause airflow obstruction. Asthma can be treated with medications that control the condition long-term as well as rescue inhalers to treat attacks.

Asthma has a tremendous societal impact. ​More than 26 million people in the U.S.—including some 6 million children—have asthma.

Types of Asthma

There are actually several different types of asthma. Understanding the specific one you have can help you get the most effective treatment. The types include:

Asthma Symptoms

The classic symptoms of asthma are wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and cough. Asthma is not a static disease. Your symptoms will wax and wane over time and be different from those of others.

If your asthma symptoms become severe, it is a medical emergency that can lead to respiratory distress and even death. Signs of a serious asthma attack include severe wheezing, very fast breathing, difficulty talking due to shortness of breath, bluish skin, profuse sweating, and a feeling of impending doom. You need to go to the emergency room if you experience any of these.


Asthma has increased dramatically over the last several decades. While the exact cause of asthma is unknown, many think the following factors act together to cause asthma or are risk factors for the condition:

  • Atopy (an inherited tendency to develop allergy)
  • Family history of asthma
  • Contracting certain respiratory infections in early childhood
  • Exposure to some airborne allergens and viral infections during early childhood (as the immune system develops)
  • Other allergens, like animal dander
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke
  • Obesity
  • Airway hyperreactivity (an exaggerated airway responsiveness to various stimuli)

Your asthma triggers will be individual. Some of the common ones include smoke, pollens, pet dander, mold, dust mites, infections, foods, exercise, and medications. Identifying and avoiding your triggers is a key component of managing asthma.


Diagnosing asthma is not always easy. In order for your doctor to make an asthma diagnosis you must:

  1. Have symptoms compatible with asthma.
  2. Demonstrate decreased airflow in your lungs that either partially or completely improves spontaneously or with treatment.

Your healthcare provider will generally take a detailed history and perform a physical exam. He or she may order other tests to assist in making a diagnosis, such as pulmonary function testing, a chest X-ray, or certain blood tests.


Treatment of asthma is focused on both the prevention and control of symptoms, as well as reduction of inflammation. Your asthma action plan is at the center of this. Think of it as your roadmap to excellent asthma control and decreased asthma symptoms.

Your plan, which should be periodically be reviewed with your doctor, covers the essential areas you need to pay attention to avoid asthma problems:

  • Monitoring: By monitoring the frequency and severity of symptoms, you are better able to take appropriate action or identify when you are doing something incorrectly.
  • Avoidance of triggers: An asthma diary may help if your asthma symptoms are worsening, as it can help you spot patterns of symptoms that occur with different exposures—the information you need so you can work to steer clear of them.
  • Treatment with medications: Your asthma treatment will combine the regular use of controller medicines with periodic use of reliever medicines when your symptoms flare up.

It is essential that you understand which medication to use when, how to take them, and how often you need to take them. Non-compliance with a treatment regimen is a common reason why asthma patients fail to achieve optimal asthma control.


Living with asthma can be challenging, and you are likely to find yourself angry, frustrated, or sad that you can't do some things you enjoyed before your (or your child's) diagnosis. But if you pay attention to the details of successful asthma management, you or your child can lead an active, healthy life. It all comes down to learning what you need to get better control of your asthma.

Medication reminders can help you stay compliant, and strategies like using dust mite-proof pillowcases can go a long way in mitigating trigger exposures. And don't underestimate the value of social support. You can learn a lot about living with asthma from those who are walking in your shoes.

A Word From Verywell

While asthma certainly may make things a little more difficult and place bumps in the road now and again, developing a plan, monitoring your asthma, and taking appropriate action will allow you to live your life to the fullest. Partner with a doctor who has good communication skills. There are certain questions you need to ask in order to ensure that you are getting appropriate treatment, and clear answers are essential. Sometimes you may need to change doctors if you are not getting what you need.

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Article Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Asthma. Updated December 10, 2019.

  2. Penn State Hershey, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Asthma in adults. Updated March 3, 2019.

  3. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Asthma.

  4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Asthma. Updated September 18, 2014.

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