What Is Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Diet?

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Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Diet is a very low-carbohydrate diet designed to help people with diabetes achieve and maintain normal blood sugar levels and reverse and/or lower the risk of complications.

It is not a weight loss diet, although it's likely that anyone who follows it will shed some pounds.

The Bernstein diet is based on eating three meals a day, choosing from a list of "allowed" foods, steering clear of "forbidden" foods, and sticking with a prescribed amount of carbohydrates. There are no restrictions or guidelines regarding protein or fat intake.

Because it limits carbohydrates so dramatically, the Bernstein Diet differs from the dietary guidelines for diabetes promoted by major medical associations. For this reason, the diet is controversial.

Fresh organic spinach in a bowl
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The Bernstein Diet has an interesting history. It was created by an engineer-turned-endocrinologist named Richard K. Bernstein, MD. He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 1946 at the age of 12 and experienced serious complications of the disease for many years.

In 1969, before his career change, Bernstein purchased a blood glucose monitor, which at the time was used only in hospitals. He began testing his blood sugar throughout the day to try to figure out what factors would cause his levels to rise and fall.

Eventually, he discovered he could manage them with a combination of a low-carb diet, exercise, and smaller doses of insulin than he had been taking. What's more, many of the complications of his diabetes resolved.

In order to earn respect for his ideas from the medical community, Dr. Bernstein went to medical school and became an endocrinologist. Since then, he has written six books about his diet and overall approach to managing diabetes.

His first was "Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars," originally published in 1997 and updated in 2011 to include information on new technology (such as insulin pumps and continuous blood sugar monitors), medications (including inhaled insulin), and recipes.

Now in his 80s, Dr. Bernstein maintains a thriving medical practice and has a robust following of people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes who have had success in maintaining normal blood sugar levels by following his diet.

How It Works

The Bernstein Diet limits the number of carbohydrates a person eats to 30 grams per day. To put this in perspective, on average, most people with diabetes get 45% of total calories from carbs, according to researchers.

For someone who eats 2,000 calories per day, that would be around 900 calories from carbs, which is 225 grams.

The Bernstein Diet has no rules or guidelines regarding protein, fats, or total calories.

In addition to the diet, Dr. Bernstein's protocol includes recommendations about taking supplemental insulin and engaging in exercise.

What to Eat

Dr. Bernstein divides foods into two categories based on the number of carbs they contain and how they affect glucose levels.

Foods known to cause a rapid rise in blood sugar are forbidden; foods that don't have this effect are allowed.

Compliant Foods
  • Most meats

  • Eggs

  • Tofu

  • Any vegetable not on the forbidden list

  • Cheese

  • Cottage cheese (in very small amounts)

  • Full-fat unsweetened yogurt

  • Cream

  • Butter and margarine

  • Unsweetened soymilk

  • Soy flour

  • Certain bran crackers

  • Artificial sweeteners that do no have added sugar

  • Nuts

  • Herbs and spices

  • Mustard

  • Sugar-free and low-carb salad dressings

  • Sugar-free flavorings and extracts

  • Water, sparkling water, club soda, diet soda, coffee, tea, low-carb alcoholic beverages in moderate amounts

  • Ready-made sugar-free gelatins (check for hidden sugars such as maltodextrin on the label)

  • Sugar-free puddings made with low-carb dairy alternatives (6 grams of carbs)

  • Homemade low-carb desserts

Non-compliant Foods
  • Fructose, corn syrup, molasses; agave nectar, dextrose, sorghum; maltitol, sorbitol and other sugar alcohols

  • Most desserts (pies, cakes, cookies, etc.)

  • Powdered artificial sweeteners that add carbs

  • Breads and crackers

  • Cereal, including oatmeal

  • Pasta

  • Pancakes and waffles

  • Foods or flours made from wheat, barley, corn, rice, quinoa, or rye

  • Certain vegetables including potatoes, parsnips, winter squash, beets, carrots, corn, yellow peppers

  • Legumes

  • Raw tomatoes (except in small amounts)

  • Cooked tomatoes; tomato paste or sauce

  • Packaged vegetables containing sugars or flour

  • All fruits and fruit juices

  • Milk

  • Sweetened yogurt; most low-fat and nonfat yogurts with added carbs

  • Powdered milk substitutes; coffee lighteners

  • Evaporated or condensed milk

  • Nuts (except in small amounts)

  • Most processed foods and snack foods

  • Most condiments, including balsamic vinegar

Meats and proteins: No meat, poultry, or other form of protein is off-limits, with the exception of any to which carbs have been added (e.g., bread crumbs in meatloaf, flour on fried chicken or fish).

Vegetables: Compliant veggies include asparagus, avocado, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and sauerkraut, cauliflower, eggplant, onions (in small amounts), peppers (any color except yellow), mushrooms, spinach, string beans, summer squash, and zucchini.

Note that cooked vegetables tend to raise blood sugar more rapidly than raw vegetables because the heat makes them more digestible and converts some of the cellulose to sugar. 

Dairy: Yogurt is allowed, but only plain, unsweetened, full-fat varieties. For all types of cheese, count 1 gram of carbs per ounce. Although cottage cheese is generally regarded as non-compliant, some people may be able to eat up to 2 tablespoons without causing a blood sugar spike.

Nuts: Although nuts do contain carbs, Dr. Bernstein says they tend to raise blood sugar levels slowly. However, because it can be hard to eat just a few nuts, it's important when following the diet to look up the number of carbs in a serving of any type of nuts to avoid going overboard. Peanut butter, even unsweetened, may raise blood sugar levels. For some people, a tablespoon can be too much.

Artificial sweeteners: Those allowed include saccharin tablets or liquid (Sweet’n Low); aspartame tablets (Equal, NutraSweet); acesulfame-K (Sunette, The Sweet One); stevia (powder or liquid); sucralose tablets (Splenda); and neotame.

Alcoholic beverages: One and a half ounces of distilled spirits or one can of beer tend to have negligible effects on blood sugar levels. Spirits should not be combined with sugar-sweetened mixers.

Recommended Timing

The Dr. Bernstein Diabetes Diet limits the total number of carbohydrates eaten over the course of the day to 30 grams. The recommended breakdown is as follows:

  • Breakfast: 6 grams
  • Lunch: 12 grams
  • Dinner: 12 grams

There are no built-in between-meal snacks, nor are there guidelines regarding the timing of meals.

Recommended Products

The food lists published in Dr. Bernstein's books include a number of brand-name foods that are considered compliant with the diet, including:

  • WestSoy Organic Unsweetened Soymilk
  • G/G Scandinavian Fiber Crispbread
  • Wasa Fiber Rye
  • DaVinci Gourmet Sugar Free Syrups
  • Ready-to-Eat Sugar-free Jell-O Brand Gelatin

Pros and Cons

  • Simple to follow

  • Wide variety of compliant foods

  • Conducive to weight loss

  • Growing body of research showing a low-carb diet can be effective for managing type 2 diabetes

  • Runs counter to dietary guidelines for managing diabetes endorsed by major medical organizations

  • The allowed intake of carbohydrates may feel too low for some

  • Favorite foods may not be allowed


Because the lists of foods that are allowed and not allowed on Dr. Bernstein's diet are so thorough and specific, following it requires very little guesswork.

What's more, there are at least as many "allowed" foods as there are "forbidden" ones, as well as plenty of variety to prevent boredom and promote well-rounded nutrition.

The diet also is, by default, low in calories. For most people, it can lead to weight loss in addition to normalized blood sugar levels. This may be especially important to people with type 2 diabetes for whom even a modest amount of weight loss can lower the risk of complications such as heart disease and high blood pressure.

There's evidence a low-carb diet might be effective for normalizing blood sugar levels and reducing the risk of complications from diabetes.

In a Duke University study, for example, researchers found that people who were obese and ate 20 grams of carbs or less per day (10 grams fewer than the Bernstein limit) for six months had better blood sugar control and more effective weight loss than participants who followed a low-glycemic/reduced-calorie diet.


The diet limits daily carbs to 30 grams, and specific amounts are allowed for each of your three meals, which can be limiting and require planning.

Between-meal snacks do not appear to be factored into the basic diet. This could feel highly restrictive for people accustomed to eating more carbs.

Despite the long list of approved foods, it's likely that at least some of the non-compliant ones will be favorites. This could make the diet feel restrictive for some people.

Perhaps the most important strike against the Bernstein Diet is that it goes against the recommendations of major medical organizations, including the American Medical Association, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Heart Association.

It also conflicts with recommendations set by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

How It Compares to Guidelines

The most significant way in which it differs from standard medical guidelines is that it emphasizes dramatically limiting carbohydrates to 30 grams per day.

The ADA acknowledges that "monitoring carbohydrate intake and considering the blood glucose response to dietary carbohydrate are key for improving postprandial glucose management." However, the organization's Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes stop short of quantifying how many grams of carbs should be eaten each day. Their stance is that the intake of macronutrients should be based on an individual's situation.

The Bernstein Diet also takes a different view of dietary protein than most medical guidelines do. Whereas limiting protein has been a mainstay of classic diabetes nutritional advice, Dr. Bernstein sees no reason to limit protein intake.

Likewise, Dr. Bernstein diverges from the standard thinking that a diet high in fat is unhealthy and the primary cause of obesity. His diet does not impose limits on protein or fat.

A Word From Verywell

There is no question that diet plays a key role in the management of diabetes—particularly type 2 diabetes, which sometimes can be headed off or reversed with lifestyle changes.

Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Diet aims to do this with a protocol that differs largely from conventional guidelines. If you have diabetes and would like to try it, it's imperative that you speak with your healthcare provider and/or a dietitian who specializes in diabetes first.

9 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Bernstein RK. Diet guidelines: No-no foods—eliminating simple sugars. The Diabetes Solution.

  2. Franz M, Boucher JL, Evert AB. Evidence-based diabetes nutrition therapy recommendations are effective: the key is individualizationDMSO. 2014:65. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S45140

  3. Bernstein RK. Diet guidelines: So what's left to eat? The Diabetes Solution.

  4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Additional information about high-intensity sweeteners permitted for sse in food in the United States.

  5. Wilding JPH. The importance of weight management in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pract. 2014;68(6):682–691. doi:10.1111/ijcp.12384

  6. Tay J, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Thompson CH, et al. A very low-carbohydrate, low–saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trialDia Care. 2014;37(11):2909-2918. doi:10.2337/dc14-0845

  7. American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee. 5. Facilitating Behavior Change and Well-being to Improve Health Outcomes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022Diabetes Care. 2022;45(Supplement_1):S60-S82. doi:10.2337/dc22-S005

  8. Bernstein RK. The basic food groups: protein and fat. The Diabetes Solution.

  9. Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM, Andersen HK, Astrup A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetesBMJ Open Diab Res Care. 2017;5(1):e000354. doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000354

By Laura Dolson
Laura Dolson is a health and food writer who develops low-carb and gluten-free recipes for home cooks.