How Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Is Treated

Traditional and New Treatments for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Hemoglobin loves carbon monoxide and binds to it about 230 times stronger than it does to oxygen, which is a problem since carbon monoxide does not provide any benefit to the body. It doesn't take much carbon monoxide in the air you breathe to get carbon monoxide poisoning and it takes a lot of oxygen to get rid of it, which is what treatment revolves around.

What Is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?
Verywell / Emily Roberts

Traditional Treatment

Carbon monoxide poisoning is not something you can treat at home. It takes, at a minimum, 100% oxygen concentration for several hours to rid the bloodstream of carbon monoxide.

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one situation that is always appropriate for calling 911.

The basic treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning is to administer high-flow oxygen by non-rebreather mask—an oxygen mask with a plastic bag hanging off of it—for as long as it takes to replace the carbon monoxide attached to hemoglobin with oxygen. Half-life is a measurement of the time it takes to eliminate half of a substance in the body. The half-life of carbon monoxide without using oxygen is 320 minutes—more than five hours to reduce levels by half. At that rate, it would take about a day for the carbon monoxide to be removed.

Giving the patient 100 percent oxygen reduces the elimination half-life to 74 minutes, which means it will still take well over five hours for a moderately exposed patient to reach acceptable levels of carbon monoxide in the blood.

Patients with carbon monoxide poisoning spend a lot of time sitting in the emergency department breathing straight oxygen.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Another option is to administer oxygen under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber, which is essentially a tube in which the patient lies and breathes 100% oxygen at pressures 1.5 to 2 times higher than normal atmospheric pressure. In a hyperbaric chamber, oxygen therapy can reduce the elimination half-life of carbon monoxide to about 20 minutes.

What to know about treating carbon monoxide poisoning.
Alex Dos Diaz / Verywell

Unfortunately, hyperbaric chambers are not always readily available, especially in rural areas. Even in areas that have access to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, it can take a couple of hours to arrange the treatment. Considering the patient will be receiving traditional oxygen administration during the waiting period, the benefit of a slightly faster treatment might already be lost. Plus, if multiple patients are affected by carbon monoxide exposure, only one at a time can be treated in the hyperbaric chamber.

While there is clear evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy clears carbon monoxide from the blood faster, there is little evidence that patients are better off because of it. One meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found mixed results when looking at the neurological outcomes of carbon monoxide poisoned patients who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Hyperbaric therapy could possibly help the patient, but there's no reason to fret if it isn't readily available.

Other Treatments

Providing oxygen to reduce the levels of carbon monoxide in the bloodstream is just one part of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment. The damage done to the brain and heart because of a lack of oxygen in the blood during carbon monoxide poisoning requires treatment as well. Depending on the severity of the poisoning, patients could need support for brain and cardiac function. Some patients will need treatment for brain swelling, which could include medications and admission to the intensive care unit.

The heart is sensitive to a lack of oxygen and patients could experience cardiac irritability and arrhythmias, which could be treated in the hospital with medication or electrical therapy. High levels of free oxygen in the bloodstream—oxygen molecules that are not bound to hemoglobin, also known as free radicals—can also increase inflammation, which adds to the potential need for cardiac intervention.

Future Treatments

There are a few innovative treatments for carbon monoxide poisoning that are being developed. Many of these therapies could be many years away and all require significant additional study to determine safety and efficacy.


Some wavelengths of light have shown, in animal studies, to accelerate the process of breaking molecular bonds between hemoglobin and carbon monoxide. If a process for getting the right color of light, one as close as possible to blood, is developed, it might provide a faster way to reduce carbon monoxide levels.

Oxygen Injections

Hyperoxygenated solutions injected directly into the bloodstream could provide a way to elevate oxygen levels beyond what is possible even with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Early studies with mice look promising, but there's a long way to go before humans can try it.

Hydrogen Saline Solutions

Likewise, the use of hydrogen-rich saline solution as an antioxidant is available in some countries and could have some benefit for carbon monoxide poisoning. Damage from too much oxygen free-floating around the bloodstream, not binding to hemoglobin, is a potential drawback to all current treatment therapies. Using a strong antioxidant to control the potential damage could be nearly as important as reversing the carbon monoxide poisoning in the first place.

Alcohol Exposure

One study found patients of intentional carbon monoxide poisoning who also drank alcohol had less overall brain damage when compared to patients with carbon monoxide poisoning alone. There is a chance the presence of alcohol could make a difference in outcome for severe CO poisoning. Since the patients in this study were already drinking before the carbon monoxide poisoning, it could turn out that the only benefit happens if the alcohol comes first.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is there a way to get carbon monoxide out of the body?

The most effective way to rid someone's body of carbon monoxide is to give them 100% oxygen as soon as they've been diagnosed with CO poisoning. This can done via one of several methods: continuous airway pressure (CPAP), an oxygen mask with a valve, or administration of oxygen through a reservoir mask at a rate of 15 liters per minute. This helps to force the CO out so it can be replaced with oxygen.

How long does it take to rid the body of carbon monoxide?

It takes four and a half to five hours for the amount of CO in the body to naturally reduce by half while breathing regular air, about an hour and a half with treatment with 100% oxygen, and 20 minutes with 3 atmospheres of pressure in a hyperbaric chamber. Oxygen treatment should be continued until blood levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which is formed when CO bonds with red blood cells, drops to less than 3% and symptoms have abated.

What happens if carbon monoxide poisoning isn't treated?

The potential damage caused by carbon monoxide is cumulative, so any symptoms or complications of exposure will depend on how much CO is in the blood and how long it's been there. Brief exposure to a small amount of CO may cause nausea and headache, while lengthy exposure to a large amount of CO can lead to considerably more serious problems such as shortness of breath (dyspnea), changes in mental alertness, neurological problems, coma, and death.

Is carbon monoxide poisoning always fatal?

No, but it can cause permanent damage if it isn't detected and treated promptly. Blood levels of COHb that reach 60% or more can bring on death soon after exposure of monoxide. And when CO poisoning damages the heart, it can increase the risk of death over the next 10 years. Even if CO poisoning isn't fatal, it can bring on symptoms days or weeks after exposure such as vision problems, abdominal pain, and neurologic deficits.

Was this page helpful?
Article Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Eichhorn L, Thudium M, Jüttner B. The diagnosis and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2018;115(51-52):863-870. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2018.0863

  2. Schultz HD. The paradox of carbon monoxide and the heart. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186(7):582-3. doi:10.1164/rccm.201207-1341ED

  3. Sun X, Xu H, Meng X, et al. Potential use of hyperoxygenated solution as a treatment strategy for carbon monoxide poisoning. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(12):e81779. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081779

  4. Merck Manual Professional Version. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Apr 2020.

  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Nov 4, 2020.

Additional Reading