How Cervical Cancer Is Diagnosed

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Cervical cancer may be suspected based on a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test, and diagnosed with a cervical biopsy. According to the American Cancer Society, women between the ages of 25 and 65 should be screened with either a primary HPV test or a combination of an HPV test and Pap smear every five years, or a Pap smear alone every three years.

More frequent testing may be recommended for those at higher risk or who have had abnormal results in the past. There are other tests that can also identify cervical cancer, particularly in the more advanced stages.

cervical cancer diagnosis



Cervical cancer symptoms do not usually appear until cancer has progressed to a fairly advanced stage. HPV, the most common cause of cervical cancer, does not usually cause symptoms—which is why it's so important to have your regularly scheduled gynecologic exams.

What to Watch For:

Nevertheless, there are a few things you can look for. Noting these will not enable you to diagnose cervical cancer. Rather, they are simply signs you should see a healthcare provider:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Genital warts, which may be raised, painless, and skin-colored (although the strains of HPV responsible for genital warts are not linked to cervical cancer)
  • Increased urinary frequency
  • Pelvic pain, especially during intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge

Labs and Tests

Abnormal changes in the cervix typically develop over several years. Since cervical cells go through a series of alterations before becoming cancer cells, it is possible to screen for evidence of HPV or for precancerous changes with diagnostic tests.

The two simplest methods include:

Pap Smear

A Pap smear plays a vital role in diagnosing cervical cancer. It is how most women discover that they have cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. It is a simple test that can reveal abnormalities of the cervix long before they progress into cancer.

A Pap smear is usually done in an exam room during a routine gynecological checkup. During a Pap smear, your healthcare provider removes a tiny amount of tissue from the cervix. This is done by gently swabbing the cervix with a small brush (like a mascara wand) or a cotton swab.

It only takes seconds to collect a sample. Some women experience a mild cramping sensation similar to menstrual cramps after this, but usually there is no pain.

The cells are examined under a microscope and abnormal cells are referred to as cervical dysplasia. 

Cervical dysplasia is classified as follows:

  • ASCUS (atypical cells of undetermined significance) describes any changes that are mildly abnormal. The cause could be a result of anything from an infection to the development of precancerous cells. ASCUS is not an indication of cervical dysplasia until further confirmatory testing is performed.
  • AGUS (atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance) refers to an abnormality in the glandular cells that produce mucus. Although not technically classified as cervical dysplasia, AGUS can be an indication of an underlying serious condition. AGUS results are considered rare, occurring in less than 1% of all Pap smear results.
  • LGSIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) means that the test has detected mild dysplasia. It is the most common finding and, in most cases, will clear up on its own within two years.
  • HGSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) is a more serious classification that, if left untreated, could lead to the development of cervical cancer.

If you have an abnormal Pap smear, it is extremely important that you follow up on recommendations from your healthcare provider, whether that be a colposcopy, a cervical biopsy, or a repeat Pap smear in a year. 

HPV Testing

HPV testing is another important test that may be done alone or at the same time as a Pap smear. If only a Pap smear has been done and is abnormal, an HPV test can often be done on the same sample. The sample collected is sent to a lab to identify the virus. 

While there are over 100 strains of the virus, not all of these cause cancer. Around 70% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18, with another 20% of cervical cancers being related to infection with HPV 31, 33, 34, 45, 52, and 58. Additional HPV viruses that have been linked to cancer include HPV 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, and 68.


If your Pap smear reveals cervical abnormalities, a colposcopy may be scheduled. A colposcopy is an in-office exam that allows the healthcare provider to view the cervix more closely with a colposcope, a lighted instrument that magnifies the cervix. It is placed outside the vagina during the exam. The images seen from the colposcope may be projected onto a screen for a more detailed view and biopsy planning.

A healthcare provider may perform a biopsy during this exam, or perhaps separate from it, so that a sample of cervical tissue can be examined by a pathologist.

Punch Biopsy

During the colposcopy, the healthcare provider may perform a cervical biopsy depending on what is found during the exam. This involves removing a small amount of cervical tissue to be examined under a microscope.

Most often this is a punch biopsy, in which the practitioner removes a small sample of tissue with a device similar to a paper punch. It takes only seconds for the medical professional to collect a tissue sample and discomfort is fleeting. Depending on the findings during the colposcopy, a few areas of the cervix may be biopsied.

Abnormal cells found during a colposcopy and biopsy may be described as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Endocervical Curettage

Endocervical curettage (ECC) is another type of cervical biopsy that may be done during a colposcopy exam. During an ECC, the healthcare provider uses a small brush to remove tissue from the endocervical canal, the narrow passageway through the cervix. As with a punch biopsy, the tissue is then examined by a pathologist. 

An ECC can be moderately painful, like bad menstrual cramps.

Before arriving for the procedure, there are a number of things you are asked to do. Among them:

  • Avoid taking aspirin or blood thinners before the procedure.
  • Do not douche or use tampons for at least three days before the procedure.
  • Avoid sexual intercourse for at least three days before the procedure.

Women can expect to experience mild symptoms in the days following the procedure, including localized pain and cramping. An over-the-counter pain reliever can usually help alleviate some of the discomfort.

In addition to pain, there may be vaginal bleeding or a dark discharge, so be sure to wear a sanitary pad. You will need to limit your activities for a day or two and avoid sexual intercourse, tampons, or douching until you have fully healed.

Cone Biopsy

There are times when a larger biopsy needs to be done to diagnose cervical cancer or remove tissue so that it does not become cancerous. In these cases, a cone biopsy may be performed.

During a cone biopsy, a cone-shaped piece of tissue is removed. This procedure is done under general anesthesia. A cone biopsy is also used to remove precancerous tissue from the cervix.

You may experience pain or bleeding for a few days after the procedure. While it is not common, after a cone biopsy, some women experience menstrual pain, decreased fertility, or an incompetent cervix, which can lead to premature delivery if you become pregnant.

Discuss these concerns and risks with your healthcare provider, as the extent of these effects is related to the exact location and size of your biopsy, as well as how well you heal. 


A specific type of cone biopsy called a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is a procedure done under local anesthesia to remove tissue from the cervix. A LEEP uses an electrically charged wire loop to remove a tissue sample. This method is more commonly used to treat high-grade cervical dysplasia, rather than to diagnose cervical cancer.  

As with a cone biopsy, women can experience pain and bleeding for a few days after a LEEP procedure. It also may result in long-term consequences such as menstrual pain, decreased fertility, or incompetent cervix. 


Once the biopsy results return, cervical cancer can either be ruled out or diagnosed. If a cervical cancer diagnosis is made, the next step is to determine the stage of cervical cancer. There are four stages of cervical cancer, each of which represents how far advanced cancer has spread.

What Is Stage 0 Cancer?

Stage 0 is not an official stage of cancer; it is used informally to describe non-invasive findings (carcinoma in situ), based on a biopsy; any stage beyond stage 0 is considered invasive. There has been much debate over whether this is truly cancer or a ​precancerous stage.​

Stage I

Stage I tumors are generally only seen with a microscope, but in advanced stage I, cancer may be seen without a microscope. The cancerous cells have invaded the cervix and cells are no longer just at the surface. This stage is broken down into:

Stage IA: This is the earliest stage of invasive cervical cancer. The cancer cannot yet be visualized with the naked eye and can only be identified under the microscope. This stage is further broken down by size into:

  • Stage IA1: The invasion area is no more than 3 mm deep.
  • Stage IA2: The invasion area is greater than 3 mm but no more than 5 mm deep.

Stage IB: In stage IB, the invasion is greater than 5 mm deep, but still limited to the cervix.

  • Stage IB1: The cancer is deeper than 5 mm but not more than 2 cm in size.
  • Stage IB2: The cancer is at least 2 cm in size but not larger than 4 cm.
  • Stage IB3: The cancer is at least 4 cm in size and limited to the cervix.

Stage II

Stage II tumors have spread beyond the cervix. 

Stage IIA: These cancers have spread beyond the cervix to the upper two-thirds of the vagina, but have not spread around the uterus. This is further broken down by size into:

  • Stage IIA1: The tumor can be seen without a microscope but is no more than 4 cm in size.
  • Stage IIA2: The tumor can be seen without a microscope and is more than 4 cm in size.

Stage IIB: The cancer has spread to the tissues around the uterus and the upper two-thirds of the vagina, but not to the pelvic wall.

Stage III

In stage III, cervical cancer has spread beyond the uterus to the lower third of the vagina and/or extends to the pelvic wall. The cancer may be blocking the ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) and may or may not involve nearby lymph nodes.

  • Stage IIIA: The cancer may have spread to the lower third of the vagina but not the walls of the pelvis. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage IIIB: IIIB The cancer extends to the pelvic wall and/or causes hydronephrosis or nonfunctioning kidney (unless known to be due to another cause).
  • Stage IIIC: The cancer involves pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes (those around the abdominal aorta), including micrometastases, irrespective of tumor size and extent.
  • Stage IIIC1: The cancer involves metastasis to the pelvic lymph nodes.
  • Stage IIIC2: The cancer involves para-aortic lymph node metastasis.

Stage IV

In stage IV, the cancer spreads beyond adjacent regions to other areas of the body. 

  • Stage IVA: These cancers have spread so that they have invaded either the bladder or rectum or both (spread to adjacent pelvic organs).
  • Stage IVB: These cancers have spread to distant regions of the body, for example, lymph nodes in a distant region of the body, the lungs, liver, or bones.
cervical cancer: stage at diagnosis



Cervical cancer that spreads is considered metastatic cancer. Imaging tests can help identify areas of metastasis.

In general, imaging tests are used for staging. So, if you have non-invasive cervical cancer removed, and no signs or symptoms of metastasis, these tests are likely not necessary. If your healthcare provider suspects local spread or distant metastases (due to your symptoms or the appearance of the tumor on physical examination or under a microscope), then imaging tests will be used to assess the regions of the body that there is concern about.

Common Imaging Tests

  • Ultrasound: An ultrasound can look at the cervix, the bladder, and the whole pelvic region to determine the cause of symptoms. It can also be used to view other areas of the body if there is a concern about metastasis.  
  • X-ray: An X-ray, such as a chest X-ray, can identify metastatic cervical cancer that has spread to the lungs or the ribs, for example. Rarely, an abnormality seen on a routine X-ray could be the first sign of metastatic cervical cancer. 
  • MRI: An MRI scan can be used to visualize the area of the cervix and pelvis. An MRI is especially useful for evaluating the spine and the spinal cord, where late-stage cervical cancer may spread. 
  • CT scan: A CT scan, like an MRI, can visualize the area of the cervix and pelvis, as well as other regions of the body where cervical cancer could have metastasized. 
  • PET scan: A PET scan is a functional test that shows areas where there is active growth of a tumor. This is particularly helpful when it comes to evaluating lymph nodes, the lungs, and the liver.

Differential Diagnoses

There are a few other conditions that may initially appear similar to cervical cancer or HPV infection. Your healthcare provider may suspect them initially, but testing will quickly rule them in or out.

  • Endometrial cancer: Endometrial cancer is cancer of the uterus. The cervix is the passageway between the vagina and the uterus, so sometimes, the two diseases can appear similar if either one has spread to the other location. In general, a biopsy is a good method of distinguishing between the two. 
  • Vaginal cancer: Vaginal cancer is not common, but because the vagina is so closely attached to the cervix, the conditions can appear similar. However, as with endometrial cancer, a biopsy can differentiate between these types of cancer.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What causes cervical cancer?

    Cervical cancer is caused when healthy cells in the cervix develop mutations in their DNA. These mutations cause the cells to multiply out of control, resulting in a mass of abnormal cells called a tumor. The biggest risk factor is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and genetics and environmental factors are also thought to contribute.

  • What are possible symptoms of cervical cancer?

    Symptoms that could indicate cervical cancer and warrant seeing your healthcare provider include:

    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after menopause, or after sex
    • Pelvic pressure or pain during intercourse
    • Bloody vaginal discharge, sometimes heavy and foul-smelling
  • How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

    Cervical cancer screening involves regular Pap smears and HPV testing. If any abnormalities are found, the next step is examination of the cervix using a colposcope. During the exam, the healthcare provider will obtain a sample of tissue (biopsy) for evaluation in the lab. If cancer cells are found, other tests may be ordered to characterize the disease, including imaging tests like an MRI, CT, or PET scan or an endoscopic exam of adjacent organs (like the bladder or rectum).

  • What is an AGUS Pap smear?

    AGUS stands for atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance. An AGUS pap smear indicates that there are abnormal cells in the lining of the cervix or uterus but that it is unclear if they are cancerous. Even so, an AGUS pap smear suggests that further investigation is needed (colposcopy, biopsy) to determine if there is, in fact, any evidence of cancer or precancer.

  • What happens if cancer cells are found?

    The cancer will be staged and the tumor graded. Cancer staging describes how advanced the cancer is and to what extent it has spread through the body. Cancer grading looks at the cancer cells themselves and describes how abnormal they are (ranging from low-grade to high-grade). These determinations help direct the appropriate course of treatment.

  • What is the differential diagnosis for cervical cancer?

    Several conditions mimic the symptoms of cervical cancer and may be investigated as part of the differential diagnosis:

  • Why might you need a hysterectomy after a cervical cancer diagnosis?

    Most early-stage cervical cancers are treated with a radical hysterectomy, which involves the removal of the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina, and nearby lymph nodes. This increases the chances of a cure and prevents recurrence. For those who want to maintain fertility, a radical trachelectomy may be performed in certain individuals with stage 1 cervical cancer. Later-stage cervical cancer (stages 2B, 3, and 4) are typically treated with radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapies.

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