How Chikungunya has spread in the New World

Chikungunya is picking up a pretty rough reputation for its painful and debilitating effects. It's also picking up ground. Previously found in Asia and Africa, it spread to the Caribbean in 2013 and is now in North and South America. A mosquito bite in parts of Florida and Texas could spread Chikungunya.

Aedes Albopictus bug close up
James Gathany, CDC / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain

What is Chikungunya?

Chikungunya (chik-en-gun-ye) is a viral infection causing fever and joint pain that spreads from person to person by mosquito bites. 

The name means "that which bends up" in the Makonde language In Tanzania where the disease was first identified in the 1950's. The name refers to how those infected appear: hobbled over by joint pain.

How does Chikungunya spread?

The infection is spread by a bite from a female Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito. The bite must occur after the mosquito had bitten someone infected with Chikungunya. Returning travelers will not spread disease if not bit by one of these mosquitoes.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates the range for the Aedes aegypti mosquito is very likely throughout the South and into southern regions of Midwestern states as well as areas of California and Arizona. The Aedes albopictus mosquito has spread further north, likely reaching Chicago and New York City. However, the density of these mosquitoes is not as high as in parts of the Caribbean where the disease has spread rapidlyin Central America as well as parts of South America, especially Venezuela, have had particularly high rates. 

Epidemics are often explosive in populations not previously infected - especially in urban areas with substantial mosquito populations. Over 1 in 3 were infected in an epidemic on Reunion Island, a French territory in the Indian Ocean in 2005.

These mosquitoes bite all day long, though more at dusk. They frequently bite indoors and they can bite all year round in warm climes. They breed in stagnant water, such as found in buckets, toilets, and tires.

An infected mother can pass the infection to her child at birth. However, pregnancies are normally healthy if infection occurs well before birth. Infections could also be spread by blood transfusion.

Do some types of Chikungunya spread faster than others?

Yes, fortunately, the strain now found in the Americas is not the strain that spreads quickly through the more commonly found mosquito in North America, Aedes albopictus. There are 3 strains - West African, East/Central/South African (ECSA), and Asian. Some ECSA strains have a mutation (referred to as A226V, within the E1 protein) which allows Aedes albopictus to rapidly spread Chikungunya.

Where has it spread?

Chikungunya was historically found in Africa and Asia. It spread to Reunion Island in 2005, to India in 2006, as well as to Italy and France through air travel. However, before 2013, it was only found in returning travelers in the Western Hemisphere. Chikungunya first spread within this hemisphere in 2013 when it was found in St Martin. It has subsequently spread throughout the Caribbean, including to Puerto Rico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. It has spread to Florida and has been found in mosquitoes in Texas and in patients in Mexico. It is now in almost all countries in Central America and northern countries in South America, as well as in the South Pacific.

The strain that arrived in the Caribbean appears to have originated in Asia. This strain is closely related to a strain from the Philippines as well as ones found in China (Zhejiang) and Micronesia.

How do I protect myself?

The simple answer: avoid mosquito bites. Vacations to areas with mosquitoes with Chikungunya may put travelers at risk. If there are mosquitoes with Chikungunya, it is important to prevent bites and mosquito breeding. Mosquitoes can breed in any uncovered water containers. Don't let water sit in tires or buckets. Empty containers. Wear long sleeves and pants to avoid bites. Use insect repellant, such as DEET. Use screens in windows and doors, if possible.

Sleeping under a mosquito net is advised in countries spread by mosquitos to prevent infection.

Will I spread it back home?

Probably not if you live in a colder climate. Most parts of the United States and Canada do not have the mosquitoes needed to spread the disease. A mosquito needs to bite the infected person and then bite another person to spread infection (except with blood transfusion or birth). The bite would have to occur while the virus is still in the infected person's the blood. The virus usually incubates for 3 to 7 days and acute symptoms usually resolve within 7 to 10 days. Most people who return with joint aches are likely not infectious 2-3 weeks after symptoms began.

7 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chikungunya virus: Transmission.

  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Potential Range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United States.

  4. Borgherini G, Poubeau P, Staikowsky F, et al. Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(11):1401-7. doi:10.1086/517537

  5. Pulmanausahakul R, Roytrakul S, Auewarakul P, Smith DR. Chikungunya in Southeast Asia: understanding the emergence and finding solutions. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15(10):e671-6. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2011.06.002

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By Megan Coffee, MD
Megan Coffee, MD, PhD, is a clinician specializing in infectious disease research and an attending clinical assistant professor of medicine.