Colon Cancer Recurrence Statistics

Symptoms, Risk Factors, and Treatment Options

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After the diagnosis and successful treatment of colon cancer, it is completely normal to be bombarded with thoughts of recurrence. At times, every twinge, irregular bowel movement, or jolt of pain may serve as a reminder of the disease and its possible reemergence.

Your risk of recurrence is dependent on many factors, such as the stage and grade of your colon cancer and what treatment you received. Thinking about colon cancer recurrence and obsessing over it are two different things. Make sure your conscientious behavior doesn’t enter obsessive territory by learning the facts about recurrence.

Types of Recurrence

While the successful treatment of colon cancer may eradicate all traces of the disease, there are no guarantees that the results will be lasting. When your tests show a complete absence of cancer cells after treatment, you are said to be in remission. Remission is a term used to describe an absence of detectable cancer cells in your body, which people with infer this to be a "cure."

When cancer recurs, there is a chance it was never completely removed or it had already spread to distant sites and were other undetected on screening tests like a PET scan. When this happens, the pattern of cancer recurrence may be described in one of three ways:

  • Local, meaning where colon where the initial cancer was located
  • Regional, meaning in the lymph nodes close to the original tumor
  • Distant, meaning when cancer has traveled to a distant site (also known as metastasis)

Survival Statistics

Here is the thing to remember about cancer and survival statistics: most of the numbers do not take in account the variable factors, such as treatment modalities or the stage of cancer, that impact your survival rate.

In recent years, researchers have been taking a closer look at how the cancer stage impacts recurrence rates. What they have found, not surprisingly, is that the more advanced the initial cancer is, the greater the risk of relapse.

A study from the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center reported that, among 1,320 people with metastatic colon cancer, 243 (18 percent) experienced recurrence. Factors for recurrence included the location of the primary tumor, the number of lymph nodes affected, and the person's age.

Further supporting these finding are statistical analyses into the five-year survival rates among people with colon cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, the percentage of people who are likely to survive for at least five years following diagnosis are as follows:

  • Stage I: 74 percent
  • Stage IIA: 67 percent
  • Stage IIB: 59 percent
  • Stage IIC: 37 percent
  • Stage IIIA: 73 percent
  • Stage IIIB: 46 percent
  • Stage IIIC: 28 percent
  • Stage IV: 6 percent

But take note: the current five-year survival rates by colon cancer stage are, at the very least, five years behind current trends and treatments in oncology. The data is collected over time are at best historic; take them with a grain of salt.

Symptoms

Following your cancer treatment, your doctor will suggest frequent screening tests prevent a recurrence. You know your body better than anyone. If you notice that anything is off or unusual, tell your doctor. Some signs to watch for include:

After being successfully treated for cancer, follow-up appointments may be as frequent as every three months. This is because 60 percent to 80 percent of colon cancer recurrences develop within two to three years of the primary malignancy.

Treatment

The treatment options available depend on the type of recurrence (local, regional, or distant). If the cancer recurrence is localized, the doctor may suggest a surgical resection, which includes removing the portion of bowel that contains cancer.

If the cancer is distant or metastatic, the doctor may suggest surgery to the metastatic sites along with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Your surgeon and oncologist will work with you to present the best treatment options based on the stage of your cancer and your personal health and risk factors.

According to a study in the Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research, the liver was the most common site of early recurrence (40.5 percent), while the most common sites of later recurrence were the lungs (32.8 percent) or local (28.1 percent).

Coping

Fear of recurrence is a strong motivator for many colon cancer survivors. It can stimulate lifestyle and diet changes, healthy choices, and regular screening tests, such as a colonoscopy or virtual colonoscopy. However, this fear can become paralytic and control your every thought if you let.

As tough as it may seem, there are things you can do to better cope:

  • Talk to a loved one (don't keep things bottled up!)
  • Schedule and keep your routine exams and appointments
  • Get support from survivors like yourself
  • Find a counselor experienced in cancer survivorship
  • Keep abreast of studies and ever-changing treatment options
  • Make positive choices about your overall health, not just those associated with cancer
  • Take life one day at a time

Now is the time to embrace positive change in your health and well-being. While you cannot predict the chances that your colon cancer will recur, you can take control of your life by improving your diet, exercising regularly, and making good health choices.

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