What Is a Dermatologist?

A Doctor Who Specializes in Skin, Hair, and Nails

A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating skin, hair, and nails. They also can address conditions related to mucous membranes, such as those in the linings inside the mouth, nose, and eyelids. Dermatologists see some patients routinely (say, for an annual skin cancer check) and others as needed when an issue such as a rash or skin infection arises.

Dermatologist looking at skin
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Dermatologists can diagnose and treat several thousand conditions, from acne and dandruff to psoriasis and cellulitis, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. Aside from this, they can offer guidance on caring for and protecting your skin based on its type.

You might also pursue seeing a dermatologist for a cosmetic procedure or treatment, such as to improve skin texture and tone or to minimize the appearance of wrinkles or scars.


Dermatologists treat a variety of skin diseases and reactions. They can diagnose and treat skin, nail, or hair conditions such as:

Procedural Expertise

There are a variety of medical tests and procedures related to skin conditions and sun damage or aging that dermatologists may order and perform.

Some dermatologists may provide a wider variety of these than others, and some may have particular specialities in one or more areas.


Procedures and surgeries performed by dermatologists for medical reasons include:

  • Allergy tests, which involve pricking the skin with a small amount of allergen to see if there is a reaction
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a light therapy for skin that can be used to kill bacteria and treat acne and other skin conditions
  • Excision, the surgical removal of skin cancer or a benign growth
  • Electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), a procedure that uses an instrument called a curette to scrape away skin tissue; the area is then cauterized to stop the bleeding
  • Mohs surgery, a procedure done in stages and with careful examination in order to remove skin cancer while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible
  • Skin biopsy, which removes skin cells or tissue to examine them and can help diagnose medical conditions such as skin cancer
  • Skin cyst removal through injections or drainage and minor surgery
  • Cryotherapy, a procedure to freeze areas of skin with liquid nitrogen that is used to treat conditions such as warts or seborrheic keratosis (benign, wart-like growths)
  • Skin graft, a procedure that takes healthy skin, often from somewhere else on a person's body, and attaches it to a damaged area (such as one that has been burned)
  • Topical chemotherapy is a prescription medication applied to the skin to treat actinic keratosis (precancerous growths caused by sun exposure) or skin cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma


Procedures done by some dermatologists that are mostly done to enhance appearance and are not considered medically necessary include:

  • Microdermabrasion treatments to improve skin's texture and tone, as well as address wrinkles or scars
  • Dermaplaning to remove deep acne scars
  • Derma filler injections, which are substances put under the skin to reduce the appearance of wrinkles or scars
  • Botox, a common derma filler injection that uses botulinum toxin and blocks nerve signals to prevent wrinkles and minimize existing wrinkles (other uses: eye twitches and migraine prevention/treatment)
  • Chemical peel in which a chemical solution is applied to the skin to cause it to shed the outer layer
  • Minor cosmetic surgery that can be done with local anesthesia (e.g., such as tumescent liposuction)
  • Laser skin resurfacing to precisely burn away damaged skin
  • Shave removal to take off a portion of a non-harmful skin growth for cosmetic purposes
  • Sclerotherapy, a treatment for minimizing the appearance of varicose veins or spider veins
  • Tattoo removal often using lasers
  • Hair transplants involve implanting healthy hairs from other areas of your head into a region of hair loss


All dermatologists receive training in the four branches of dermatology: medical dermatology, cosmetic dermatology, surgical dermatology, and dermatopathology.

However, a dermatologist might choose to specialize in one of these specific branches, making it the major—or, in some cases, the sole—focus of their practice:

  • Medical dermatology: The dermatologist diagnoses, treats and helps to prevent diseases that can affect the skin, hair, and nails.
  • Surgical dermatology: The dermatologist treats the diseases that affect the skin, hair, and nails through surgical procedures, such as the removal of skin cancer.
  • Cosmetic dermatology: The dermatologist uses treatments to improve the appearance of the skin, hair, and nails. Cosmetic dermatology is for aesthetic purposes and is not an essential component of maintaining good health. It encompasses procedures such as injecting fillers for a more youthful appearance, chemical peels, hair transplants, and laser surgery to diminish the appearance of skin conditions such as scars, wrinkles, and varicose veins.
  • Dermatopathology: The dermatologist specializes in dermatology and pathology. They examine samples of the skin, hair, and nails to diagnose and treat diseases.

Many dermatologists also choose to participate in additional training in order to gain expertise in more specific areas of dermatology, such as pediatrics or specific types of surgery.

Training and Certification

Like most careers in the medical field, becoming a dermatologist requires a significant amount of education. An aspiring dermatologist must earn a bachelor's degree and attend medical school, after which they will become a medical doctor (M.D.) or a doctor of osteopathic medicine (D.O.). Then they will participate in an internship and at least three years of training in a residency program.

In addition to this, a dermatologist can become board-certified by obtaining a license to practice medicine or by passing exams by the American Board of Dermatology, the American Osteopathic Association, or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

What Does FAAD Mean?

FAAD stands for fellow of the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD). When a dermatologist has the letters FAAD after their name, it means that they are board-certified. You can find FAADs near you by searching the organization's dermatologist directory using your zip code.

A board-certified dermatologist must retake board exams every 10 years in order to keep the title. It's vital that a dermatologist—whether board-certified or not—keep up with industry advances by continuing their education through attending advanced courses and by reading trade publications and highly regarded journals like the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Appointment Tips

Patients are often sent to a dermatologist by their primary care physician. And in many cases, health insurance plans require a formal referral from your PCP.

However, in some cases, you may be able to bypass a visit to your family doctor and schedule an appointment with a dermatologist:

  • If you find a lesion that you suspect could be skin cancer 
  • If you have risk factors that increase your likelihood of developing skin cancer, such as fair skin and a history of blistering sunburns or a family history of skin cancer

Always check directly with your insurance before scheduling this appointment.

If you don't have health insurance, you can ask the dermatologist office if they offer any discounts or sliding scale based on income.

It's also recommended that everyone visit a dermatologist once a year for a complete skin examination to check for skin cancer.

During your appointment, point out any changes in moles or skin bumps and ask about any concerns, such as dry skin or blemishes. Never assume a change in your skin is too minor to mention.

To prepare for your appointment and provide your dermatologist with helpful information:

  • Jot down a list of any skin changes or concerns. This includes any irregular-shaped moles (asymmetrical or with irregular borders), new or changing bumps, or discolorations. You should also bring a list of questions so that you can ensure nothing is forgotten during your appointment.
  • Bring a copy of any relevant tests results, if applicable
  • Note all medications and supplements you are taking since some may have side effects that can affect skin or lead to skin reactions.
  • Snap photos of product ingredient lists—for skincare washes, soaps, oils, serums, and lotions—especially if you have rashes or areas of irritation. Do the same for laundry detergents.

Be prepared for a full-body skin check. You might asked to strip down to underwear so that all regions can be thoroughly checked for suspicious areas. The dermatologist may use a magnifying device to examine certain areas closely and may ask to photograph moles and growths for your medical chart to check for changes at future appointments.

To make it easier for a dermatologist to inspect your skin:

  • Remove nail polish so that the dermatologist can thoroughly examine your nails and nail beds, which are regions where skin cancers can occur.
  • Wear your hair down or in ties or clips that are easily removed so that the dermatologist can thoroughly check your scalp.
  • Don't wear makeup or pack makeup remover that you can use prior to the appointment so that all areas of your face and around your eyes are clearly visible.
  • Don't wear jewelry since it can cover areas of skin.

A Word From Verywell

If you have health insurance, always check to see if you need a referral from a primary care physician before seeing a dermatologist and if your plan requires that you go to an in-network provider. And if a dermatology practice is independent, never assume they accept insurance. Some don't, so it's important to inquire.

If you are visiting a dermatologist for cosmetic reasons, it's important to get detailed information from their office about costs since insurance often doesn't cover related procedures.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Do you need a referral to see a dermatologist?

    In many cases, a referral from your primary care physician is required to see a dermatologist. Be sure to check your health insurance plan to see if this is necessary and if you are required to use an in-network provider.

  • Is a dermatologist a doctor?

    Yes, a dermatologist is a doctor. Like most jobs in the medical field, becoming a dermatologist requires a lot of education and hands-on training. They must earn a bachelor's degree, finish medical school, complete an internship, and participate in a residency program.

  • What are the subspecialties of dermatology?

    Dermatologists are trained in all four branches of dermatology, but they can choose to specialize in a particular branch.

    • Medical: Diagnoses, treats, and prevents diseases affecting skin, hair, and nails
    • Surgical: Uses surgical procedures for treatment (such as removing skin cancer)
    • Cosmetic: Focuses on improving appearance of skin, hair, and nails, which may include surgical means such as injecting fillers or hair transplants
    • Dermatopathology: Examines skin, hair, and nail samples for diagnosis and treatment
  • What do dermatologists treat?

    Dermatologists can diagnose and treat a large number of skin, hair, and nail diseases or conditions. Some examples include acne, rosacea, skin cancer, dandruff, poison ivy, nail infections, and many more.

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5 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. American Academy of Dermatology. What is a dermatologist?

  2. American Academy of Dermatology Association. Disease and conditions.

  3. American Academy of Dermatology Association. Liposuction: What can it do for me?

  4. American Academy of Dermatology. Why choose a board-certified dermatologist?

  5. The Skin Cancer Foundation. Annual exams.