Female Anatomy

Diagrams of the Reproductive System, Urinary System, and Breast Structures

Female anatomy refers to the internal and external structures of the reproductive and urinary systems. Reproductive anatomy aids with sexual pleasure, getting pregnant, and breastfeeding a baby. The urinary system helps rid the body of toxins through urination (peeing). 

Some people are born with internal or external structures that are ambiguous or characteristic of both male and female anatomy. The following female anatomy chart is a reference based on typical location.

The word “female” is used here to refer to people who identify as female and have typical reproductive organs of a cisgender female. We recognize that some people who identify as female do not have the same anatomy as that depicted in this article.

Female Anatomy Chart: Quick Reference 

Female Anatomy Diagram

Kocakayaali / Getty Images

Female Genital Anatomy

Female genitalia consist of organs that are both inside and outside the body. This section will describe the internal and external structures.

The External Female Anatomy

This photo contains content that some people may find graphic or disturbing.

Diagram showing anatomy of human vagina

blueringmedia / Getty Images

The vulva is made up of the external structures outside the vaginal opening, including:

  • Mons pubis: The mons pubis is the rounded, fleshy area on the front of the pelvic bone (lower belly area) where pubic hair usually grows. 
  • Labia majora: The labia majora are the fleshy outer folds of protective skin located on each side of the vaginal opening. They cover and protect the other, more delicate external genital organs described below. 

Labia: The Latin Word for Lips

"Labia" is the Latin word for lips, and the labia majora is often referred to as the outer lips.

  • Labia minora: The labia minora are skinfolds that are just inside the labia majora. For some women, the labia minora extends past the labia majora. 
  • Clitoris: The clitoris sits at the top of the vulva, above the urethral opening. A fold of skin called the clitoral hood covers most of the clitoris, leaving only the tip or nub visible. The rest of the clitoris is a spongy shaft that goes back several inches inside the body.  
  • Urethral opening: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Its opening is located below the clitoris, directly above the vaginal opening. 
  • The vaginal opening: The vaginal opening is located between the urethra and the anus.
  • Bartholin glands: Bartholin glands sit on both sides inside the vaginal opening. They release some of the secretions that lubricate the vagina to increase comfort during sexual intercourse.
  • Skene's glands: The Skene's glands are located on either side of the urethra and lubricate the urethral opening. Skene’s glands are sometimes referred to as the female prostate. While scientists debate if female ejaculation exists, some believe these glands are its source during sexual arousal.

Functions of the Vaginal Opening

It’s the opening where:

  • Menstrual blood leaves the body
  • A baby exits the body during vaginal birth 
  • Sexual intercourse for reproduction and/or pleasure occurs

The Internal Female Anatomy

Female reproductive system

Kinwun / Getty Images

Internal female genitalia include the structures inside the vaginal opening. These include:

  • Vagina: The vagina is a muscular canal that connects the cervix and the uterus, leading to the outside of the body. Parts of the vagina are rich in collagen and elastin, which give it the ability to expand during sexual stimulation and childbirth.
  • Cervix: The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that separates the lower uterus and the vagina and may play a role in lubrication. During childbirth, it dilates so the baby can move out of the uterus into the vagina and out of the body.

Cervix: Pleasure or Pain?

While direct contact with the cervix rarely occurs during intercourse, some women claim it helps with sexual pleasure. Others say it causes discomfort.

  • Uterus: The uterus is located in the lower pelvis (belly area between the hips), through the vagina just past the cervix. Often called a womb, it’s where a baby lives during pregnancy. Interestingly, it has three layers of muscle and is one of the strongest muscles in the body.
  • Ovaries: The ovaries are small organs located on both sides of the pelvis. They play a crucial role in female hormone production and produce eggs during ovulation.
  • Fallopian tubes: Fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus on each side. Cilia, hairlike structures, guide the egg in the right direction from the ovary to the uterus.
  • Hymen: The hymen is a thin tissue that sits at the vaginal opening and has no known biological function. It becomes more elastic with age and breaks or ruptures at some point in a woman’s life. While sexual activity is one way the hymen can rupture, a broken hymen is not evidence of sexual activity.

Female Breast Anatomy 

Female breast anatomy

MatoomMi / Getty Images

The breast contains multiple structures within it, including:

  • Adipose tissue: Each breast contains adipose or fatty tissue used to store excess energy.
  • Lobules: Within the adipose tissue are 15–20 sections called lobules attached to ducts that can produce milk. 
  • Milk ducts: The milk ducts lead to the areola and nipple, which are the outer portion of the breast. 
  • Areola and nipples: The areola is the darker area on the outside of the breast that surrounds the nipple in the center.

Female Body Parts Function

Hormonal Changes

Estrogen and progesterone are the primary female hormones produced by the reproductive system. Hormone production increases at puberty to stimulate ovulation, giving a woman the ability to conceive a child. Female hormones also promote vaginal lubrication and increase sexual desire. 


Female anatomy is designed for both intimacy and conceiving a baby. Structures such as the vulva, vagina, and breasts are sensitive to touch, stimulating arousal. The clitoris includes sensitive nerve endings, and its sole purpose is for sexual pleasure.

Getting Pregnant

Sexual intimacy that leads to intercourse is usually the first step in getting pregnant. However, some do so through in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI).

Conception and Pregnancy 

During ovulation, an ovary releases an egg that travels through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. During penile-vaginal intercourse, semen is released into the vagina. Sperm from the semen swim toward the egg to join with it in the uterus or fallopian tubes. 

Conception, or fertilization, occurs when the sperm and egg join, creating a zygote that develops into an embryo. Fertilization can happen hours or days after sexual intercourse.

When the egg is not fertilized and a female doesn’t get pregnant, the uterine lining sheds, causing a menstrual cycle, or period. Most females have a cycle every 28–31 days. However, it varies depending on when they ovulate. 


Female anatomy is intricate, and its structures have many functions, including urination, sexual arousal, and the conception of a baby. 

The vulva, the external structures outside the vaginal opening, includes the: 

  • Mons pubis
  • Labia
  • Clitoris
  • Urethra
  • Vaginal opening
  • Bartholin glands
  • Skene's glands

Internal female anatomy includes the following: 

  • Vagina
  • Cervix
  • Uterus
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Hymen

The breasts are included in female anatomy and serve a unique function in sexual stimulation and in breastfeeding a baby. 

A Word From Verywell 

Female anatomy can seem highly complex. Understanding it helps those with this anatomy to prepare for changes during puberty, adulthood, pregnancy, and menopause (when a woman stops having menstrual cycles for 12 straight months). 

It’s important to note that some babies are born with ambiguous structures, meaning they do not resemble typical female or male anatomy. Others are born with internal or external organs or genitalia of both males and females. 

If there is no significant impact on the person, they can continue being their uniquely perfect self. When it impacts someone’s daily life, mental, emotional, or sexual health, their healthcare team may make treatment recommendations. 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Where does urine pass in the female genitals?

    Urine collects in the bladder, passes through the urethra, and leaves the body at the urethral opening.

  • How does female anatomy change during pregnancy?

    Females no longer ovulate or have their menstrual cycle during pregnancy. At times there is minor bleeding that can be mistaken for a period. The uterus expands, and the cervix thickens. Many notice changes in their breasts, such as tenderness, fullness, or heaviness. The areola and nipples may also change and become darker.

  • Where is a woman’s G spot?

    There is a lot of speculation about whether a woman’s erotic G-spot is an actual structure or a sensitive area in the vagina. For most, to find it, you or your partner can insert a finger, palm up, a few inches into the vagina. Curl your finger in a “come here” motion to see if that stimulates it.

9 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Advanced Gynecology. Female anatomy 101: A short, simple guide to your organs. Updated December 7, 2020.

  2. Biology online. Labia.

  3. Lee M, Dalpiaz A, Schwamb R, Miao Y, Waltzer W, Khan A. Clinical pathology of Bartholin’s glands: A review of the literature. Curr Urol. 2015;8(1):22-25. doi:10.1159/000365683

  4. Rodriguez F, Camacho A, Bordes S, Gardner B, Levin R, Tubbs R.  Female ejaculation: An update on anatomy, history, and controversies. Clinical Anatomy. 2020;34(1):103-107. doi:10.1002/ca.23654

  5. Associated Medical Schools of New York. Skene’s glands.

  6. Mishori R, Ferdowsian H, Naimer K, Volpellier M, McHale T. The little tissue that couldn’t – dispelling myths about the Hymen’s role in determining sexual history and assault. Reprod Health. 2019;16(1). doi:10.1186/s12978-019-0731-8

  7. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Anatomy of the breasts.

  8. Kothari C, Diorio C, Durocher F. The importance of breast adipose tissue in breast cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(16):5760. doi:10.3390/ijms21165760

  9. Puppo V, Gruenwald I. Does the G-spot exist? A review of the current literature. Int Urogynecol J. 2012 Dec;23(12):1665-9. doi: 10.1007/s00192-012-1831-y.

Additional Reading

By Brandi Jones, MSN-ED RN-BC
Brandi is a nurse and the owner of Brandi Jones LLC. She specializes in health and wellness writing including blogs, articles, and education.