The Fitzpatrick Classification Scale for Skin Types

The Fitzpatrick scale (also known as the Fitzpatrick skin typing test or Fitzpatrick phototype scale) was developed in 1975 by Harvard Medical School dermatologist Thomas Fitzpatrick to classify a person's complexion in relation to their tolerance to sunlight. It is today used by many health professions to determine how a patient will respond to facial treatments.

Practitioners also use the scale to determine how likely a person is to get skin cancer.

Woman in bathing suit and sunscreen
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Where Do You Fit on the Fitzpatrick Scale?

It's possible that you may not meet all the characteristics of any one type, so you should go with the one that best describes you. The Fitzpatrick scale includes six different skin types according to the amount of melanin your skin has and your skin's reaction to sun exposure.

Melanin is a dark brown pigment that's in hair, skin, and the irises of your eyes. If a person has more melanin, then their skin, hair, and eyes will be darker, and it is more likely that their skin will tan rather than burn.

Type Features Characteristics
I pale white skin | red or blond hair | blue eyes | freckles always burns, never tans
II white or fair skin | red or blond hair | blue, hazel, or green eyes usually burns, tans with difficulty
III cream white or fair skin | any eye or hair color gradually tans, sometimes has a mild burn
IV light brown skin tans with ease, rarely burns
V dark brown skin tans very easily, very rarely burns
VI deeply pigmented dark brown tans very easily, never burns

How to Use the Scale Responsibly

The scale provides a reference point that people can use to get a better idea as to how much sun exposure they can handle. It is meant to provide general, rather than individualized, guidance and shouldn't be used as a substitute for visiting your dermatologist or primary health provider.

In the end, there are no hard or fast rules when it comes to the "right" amount of sun exposure a person should have. While the scale suggests, for instance, that black skin never burns, we know that it actually does. The simple truth is that even the darkest skin tones are susceptible to sun damage and that skin cancers do occur in people of color.

While fair-skinned people are certainly more likely to develop malignancies, people of all skin colors are advised to use sunscreen (with an SPF of 30 or above), ideally on a daily basis. Everyone should wear sunscreen, including people with darker skin, whether African American, Latino, Middle Eastern, or Asian.

In fact, people of color are at risk of a certain type of cancer called acral lentiginous melanoma, which is not directly caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. (It was the type that killed reggae star Bob Marley back in 1981.)

Acral melanoma is genetically different from other forms of skin cancer and appears primarily on hairless parts of the body, such as the palms, soles of the feet, and under fingernails and toenails. While excessive UV exposure may not trigger the malignancy (given that these parts of the body are less exposed to sunlight), it can exacerbate it.

A Word From Verywell

No matter what your race or ethnicity, it's important to pay attention to any changes you see in your skin. If you find any worrisome mole, blemish, spot, sore, or other concerning skin change, don't hesitate to contact your healthcare provider immediately.

While sunlight definitely has its share of positive health benefits (such as allowing the body to produce Vitamin D), excessive exposure can often do more harm than good. Keep covered or in the shade as much as possible, and use sunblock as part of your daily skincare routine.

2 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Sachdeva S. Fitzpatrick skin typing: applications in dermatology. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009;75(1):93-6. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.45238

  2. Bradford PT. Skin cancer in skin of color. Dermatol Nurs. 2009;21(4):170-7, 206. 

Additional Reading
  • Fitzpatrick, T. "The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI." Archives of Dermatology. 1988;124(6): 869-871.

  • Liu, L.; Zhang, W.; Gao, T.; and Li, C. "Is UV an etiological factor of acral melanoma ?"  Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. November/December 2016; 29:539-545.

By Heather L. Brannon, MD
Heather L. Brannon, MD, is a family practice physician in Mauldin, South Carolina. She has been in practice for over 20 years.