Could a Flu Patch Bring an End to Flu Shots?

If you hate getting flu shots because you don't like needles, you could soon be in luck. Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University have developed a flu patch that appears to be as effective as the traditional flu vaccine injection, according to a 2018 study published in the journal Vaccine.

Although the transdermal device is still in the early trial phase, the current findings are promising and the vaccine could soon be on its way to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for formal approval.

Flu patch
 Christopher Moore, Georgia Tech

How It Works

The experimental flu patch, called the Nanopatch, is a self-adhesive patch that contains 100 water-soluble microneedles that dissolve into the skin to deliver the seasonal flu vaccine. The needles dissolve within minutes of the bandage-size patch being applied to the skin. The patch can then be removed and discarded in the waste bin (no need for a sharps container).

Another significant benefit of the Nanopatch is that it can be delivered in the mail and self-administered. It doesn't require refrigeration or no special training to put it on. This would eliminate the need for a doctor or pharmacy visit every flu season.

Researchers and public health officials hope that a device like this could significantly increase flu vaccination rates, which currently falls below the 50% mark.

As of early 2021, the transdermal influenza patch vaccine is still in the trial phase and is not yet available to the general public.

Safety and Effectiveness

Phase I research from the National Institutes of Health published in The Lancet concluded that the flu patch was as safe as a flu injection.

To assess the product's safety, the researchers enrolled 100 adult participants who were divided into four random groups:

  • Group 1: Received the flu patch administered by a healthcare provider
  • Group 2: Self-administered the flu patch
  • Group 3: Received the traditional flu shot administered by a healthcare provider
  • Group 4: Received a placebo patch administered by a healthcare provider

Immune responses measured through blood samples were essentially the same in all groups both after the initial administration and six months later. Side effects were also the same and primarily involved application/injection site tenderness, redness, and itching.

Similar findings were reported in the 2018 study published in Vaccine. However, there was a slight difference in the rate of side effects.

While side effects were generally mild across all groups, the Nanopatch was more likely to mild to moderate application site reactions and at a higher rate than either the placebo or flu shot group.

What Happens Next

In the next step toward FDA approval, the researchers recruited 100 volunteers in New Zealand, Texas, and Massachusetts to test the effectiveness of the Nanopatch.

According to the pre-publication data, which has yet to be peer-reviewed, the device achieved consistently higher influenza antibody responses than the flu shots across all three groups. It is yet unclear how relevant the differences are; even so, the preliminary data suggests that the Nanopatch may be at the very least equal to that of the flu shot.

Larger scale studies are still needed before the Nanopatch will be available to the general public, but researchers are hopeful that it will continue to prove safe and effective. It is also envisioned that the patch technology could be used to administer other types of vaccines as well.

Current Flu Vaccination Options

Given that it may still be some years before the Nanopatch makes its way to market shelves, you should continue to get your annual flu vaccination as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

There are multiple options available, including standard quadrivalent (four-in-one) flu shots, cell-based flu vaccines for people with egg allergies, and high-dose flu vaccines for older adults.

There are also non-traditional options for people who fear big needles. These include:

  • FluMist: A nasal spray vaccine that employs a weakened live vaccine
  • Fluzone: An intradermal flu shot that penetrates the skin with a tiny needle rather than injecting a large muscle
  • Afluria: A jet injector that uses high-pressure to deliver the vaccine through the skin without a needle

If you're hesitant to get the flu shot for any reason, speak with your doctor about these options as they may help overcome your worries and concerns.

A Word From Verywell

Getting vaccinated against the flu is important. You will protect not only yourself but those around you who may be at high risk for complications. Thousands of people die each year from influenza, and the flu you get could very well travel around the planet. Taking the time to get vaccinated could literally save a life.

Was this page helpful?
Article Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Fernando GJP, Hickling J, Jayashi Flores CM, et al. Safety, tolerability, acceptability and immunogenicity of an influenza vaccine delivered to human skin by a novel high-density microprojection array patch (Nanopatch™). Vaccine. 2018;36(26):3779-88. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.053

  2. National Institutes of Health. Researchers develop microneedle patch for flu vaccination. June 27, 2017.

  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Flu vaccination coverage, United States, 2019–20 influenza season. October 1, 2020.

  4. Rouphael NG, Paine M, Mosley R, et al. The safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of inactivated influenza vaccine delivered by microneedle patch (TIV-MNP 2015): a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial. Lancet. 2017 Aug 12;390(10095):P649-58. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30575-5

  5. Clinicaltrials.gov. Inactivated influenza vaccine delivered by microneedle patch or by hypodermic needle. Updated July 5, 2019.

  6. Brewer MG, Anderson EA, Pandya RP, et al. Peptides derived from the tight junction protein CLDN1 disrupt the skin barrier and promote responsiveness to an epicutaneous vaccine. J Invest Dermatol. 2020;140(2):361-9.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jid.2019.06.145

  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently asked influenza (flu) questions: 2020-2021 season. Updated January 14, 2021.

  8. Grohskopf LA, Alyanak E, Broder KR, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019-20 influenza season. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2019;68(3):1-21. doi:10.15585/mmwr.rr6803a1

Related Articles