Can Food Allergies Cause Hair Loss?

Food allergies do not cause hair loss per se, but in some people with food allergies (particularly those with multiple food allergies), they can cause nutritional deficiencies that may contribute to thinning hair. People who have food allergies also have an increased predisposition to alopecia areata, an autoimmune condition characterized by patchy bald spots.

A man assessing his hair loss
RUN STUDIO / Getty Images

How Food Allergies and Hair Loss Are Connected

Food allergies may be linked with hair loss in cases where people develop a nutritional deficiency or in cases where they develop an associated autoimmune condition.

Nutritional Deficiency

If you avoid certain foods because you're allergic to them, you may develop nutritional deficiencies that cause your hair to thin. A lack of vitamin D, selenium, iron, niacin, zinc, fat, or protein can cause hair loss. For example, milk is often fortified with vitamin D, so you can become D deficient if you have a dairy allergy.

If you have food allergies, don't overcompensate by taking excessive supplements: An overdose of certain nutrients can cause health problems and may even lead to hair loss. For example, an excess of vitamin A or selenium may be associated with hair loss. Talk to your healthcare provider about how to safely and effectively use nutritional supplements to prevent potential deficiencies.

Immune Response

Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissue. Food allergies are not autoimmune diseases, but both are characterized by a hyperactive immune response and have overlapping genetic markers.

In fact, emerging research suggests food allergens may actually trigger autoimmune diseases in people who are genetically predisposed to both. A 2019 study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology found a link between walnut allergies and the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris, a painful blistering skin condition.

The autoimmune disease alopecia areata may be triggered by food allergies as well. In this condition, the immune system attacks hair follicles, causing inflammation that results in round patches of hair loss on the scalp and body. A 2018 study published in Allergy and Asthma Proceedings found people with alopecia areata are at a three-fold higher-than-normal risk of having a food allergy.

However, it is still unclear whether food allergies cause the autoimmune disease itself or if the two conditions are simply correlated.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease often is mistaken for a food allergy because the two share similar symptoms, including stomach upset and skin rashes that are triggered by eating gluten. Unlike a food allergy, celiac disease is an autoimmune condition. But it, too, has been linked with hair loss.

Sometimes, people who have celiac disease experience nutritional deficiencies due to malabsorption. What's more, frequent gastrointestinal problems can lead people with celiac disease to avoid eating foods that trigger an upset stomach or to reduce food intake in general.

Additionally, people who have an autoimmune disease like celiac are at an increased risk of having more than one autoimmune disease, including alopecia areata. Others may have both celiac disease and food allergies, a combination that further increases the risk of hair loss.

It is normal to lose 60 to 100 strands of hair a day, and most people may not even notice this amount of hair loss. However, when hair loss is unexpected or occurs rapidly, it's advisable to be evaluated by a healthcare provider.

A Word From Verywell

Male pattern baldness and a receding hairline are both fairly common, especially for men. Women can develop thinning hair, particularly in the postmenopausal years. Whether you chalk your thinning hair or bald spots up to normal aging, a nutritional deficiency, or something else, talk to your healthcare provider about it. There are other possible causes, which should also be considered.

8 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Ibrahim O, Bergfeld WF, Piliang M. Eosinophilic esophagitis: Another atopy-related alopecia areata trigger? J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2015;17(2):58-60. doi:10.1038/jidsymp.2015.43

  2. Guo EL, Katta R. Diet and hair loss: effects of nutrient deficiency and supplement use. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2017;7(1):1-10. doi:10.5826/dpc.0701a01

  3. Roychoudhuri R, Hirahara K, Mousavi K, et al. BACH2 represses effector programs to stabilize T(reg)-mediated immune homeostasis. Nature. 2013;498(7455):506-10. doi:10.1038/nature12199

  4. Lin L, Moran TP, Peng B, et al. Walnut antigens can trigger autoantibody development in patients with pemphigus vulgaris through a "hit-and-run" mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;144(3):720-728.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2019.04.020

  5. Magen E, Chikovani T, Waitman DA, Kahan NR. Association of alopecia areata with atopic dermatitis and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2018;39(2):96-102. doi:10.2500/aap.2018.39.4114

  6. Ertekin V, Tosun MS, Erdem T. Screening of celiac disease in children with alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol. 2014;59(3):317. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.131468

  7. Rodrigo L, Beteta-gorriti V, Alvarez N, et al. Cutaneous and mucosal manifestations associated with celiac disease. Nutrients. 2018;10(7). doi:10.3390/nu10070800

  8. Dowling PJ. Food allergy: practical considerations for primary careMo Med. 2011;108(5):344–349

By Marlo Mittler, MS, RD
Marlo Mittler, MS, RD, is a registered dietitian specializing in pediatric, adolescent, and family nutrition. She is the owner of NutritionByMarlo.