High and Low-FODMAP Diet Foods to Eat

FODMAP is short for fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols. These are a collection of short-chain carbohydrates found in many common foods.

The FODMAP theory states that eating foods high in FODMAPs causes an increased level of liquid and gas in the small and large intestine. This causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, gas, and bloating. It also causes diarrhea and constipation.

Research indicates that there appears to be a cumulative effect of these foods on symptoms. In other words, eating more high-FODMAP foods at the same time will add up. This results in symptoms that you might not experience if you ate only one high-FODMAP food at a time.

In contrast, by following a low-FODMAP diet, it's believed that you will experience fewer of these symptoms. 

Lists of common high- and low-FODMAP foods are featured below. These lists are based on the most updated research from Monash University and may change over time. In addition, you may have your own individual sensitivities to foods that should be taken into account when determining how your diet affects your symptoms.

High-FODMAP Food List

bowl of mixed legumes

Katarina Lofgren / Maskot

The following foods have been identified as being high in FODMAPs:

Fruits

  • Apples
  • Apricots
  • Blackberries
  • Cherries
  • Grapefruit
  • Mango
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches
  • Pears
  • Plums and prunes
  • Pomegranates
  • Watermelon
  • High concentration of fructose from canned fruit, dried fruit, or fruit juice

Grains

  • Barley
  • Couscous​
  • Farro
  • Rye
  • Semolina
  • Wheat

Lactose-Containing Foods

These foods contain lactose, which is a FODMAP:

  • Buttermilk
  • Cream
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Margarine
  • Milk (cow, goat, sheep)
  • Soft cheese, including cottage cheese and ricotta
  • Yogurt (regular and Greek)

Dairy Substitutes

  • Oat milk (although a 1/8 serving is considered low-FODMAP)
  • Soy milk (U.S.)

Legumes

  • Baked beans
  • Black-eyed peas
  • Butter beans
  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils
  • Kidney beans
  • Lima beans
  • Soybeans
  • Split peas

Sweeteners

  • Agave
  • Fructose
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Isomalt
  • Maltitol
  • Mannitol
  • Molasses
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol

Vegetables

  • Artichokes
  • Asparagus
  • Beets
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery
  • Garlic
  • Leeks
  • Mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Onions
  • Peas
  • Scallions (white parts)
  • Shallots
  • Snow peas
  • Sugar snap peas

Low-FODMAP Food List

grilled chicken over vegetables

Cristina Cassinelli / Getty Images

The following foods have been identified as being lower in FODMAPs:

Fruits

  • Avocado (limit 1/8 of whole)
  • Banana
  • Blueberry
  • Cantaloupe
  • Grapes
  • Honeydew melon
  • Kiwi
  • Lemon
  • Lime
  • Mandarin oranges
  • Olives
  • Orange
  • Papaya
  • Plantain
  • Pineapple
  • Raspberry
  • Rhubarb
  • Strawberry
  • Tangelo

Sweeteners

  • Artificial sweeteners that do not end in -ol
  • Brown sugar
  • Glucose
  • Maple syrup
  • Powdered sugar
  • Sugar (sucrose)

Dairy and Alternatives

  • Almond milk
  • Coconut milk (limit 1/2 cup)
  • Hemp milk
  • Rice milk
  • Butter
  • Certain cheeses, such as  brie, camembert, mozzarella, Parmesan
  • Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, ice cream, and yogurt

Vegetables

  • Arugula (rocket lettuce)
  • Bamboo shoots
  • Bell peppers
  • Broccoli
  • Bok choy
  • Carrots
  • Celery root
  • Collard greens
  • Common cabbage
  • Corn (half a cob)
  • Eggplant
  • Endive
  • Fennel
  • Green beans
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Parsley
  • Parsnip
  • Potato
  • Radicchio 
  • Scallions (green parts only)
  • Spinach, baby
  • Squash
  • Sweet potato
  • Swiss chard
  • Tomato
  • Turnip
  • Water chestnut
  • Zucchini

Grains

  • Amaranth
  • Brown rice
  • Bulgur wheat (limit to 1/4 cup cooked)
  • Oats
  • Gluten-free products
  • Quinoa
  • Spelt products

Nuts

  • Almonds (limit 10)
  • Brazil nuts
  • Hazelnuts (limit 10)
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Pecan
  • Pine nuts
  • Walnuts

Seeds

  • Caraway
  • Chia
  • Pumpkin
  • Sesame
  • Sunflower

Protein Sources

  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Shellfish
  • Tofu and tempeh
  • Turkey

Work With a Dietitian

If you are interested in following a low-FODMAP diet, experts recommend you work with a qualified dietary professional.

There are risks to coming up with your own diet. It is tempting to pick certain items based on your personal preference, but this could result in continued symptoms because you're not strictly following a low-FODMAP diet.

Working with a trained dietitian will also help you make sure that you receive adequate and balanced nutrition. This includes eating enough dietary fiber.

As with any new treatment or dietary approach, it is always best to discuss your plans with your doctor as well.

Summary

High-FODMAP foods cause higher levels of gas and liquid in the small and large intestine. As a result, you may experience abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation.

If you follow a low-FODMAP diet, you can avoid many of these problems. It's important to work with a trained dietitian to learn how to eat nutritious meals while preventing gastrointestinal symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Is there a low FODMAP-friendly version of pizza?

    Yes. Gluten-free pizza with mozzarella cheese can be a low-FODMAP option. For the sauce, stick to a tomato base without garlic and onions.

  • Why are FODMAPS bad?

    For some people, FODMAPs aren't digested well. They cause bloating and are quickly fermented by bacteria, which produces gas. The result is ongoing gastrointestinal problems.

  • Is a low-FODMAP diet good for you?

    It depends. For those who suffer from digestive issues like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a low-FODMAP diet may significantly reduce symptoms and improve quality of life. However, if you don't have these issues, the diet can unnecessarily put you at increased risk of malnutrition without yielding any benefits.

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4 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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