High- and Low-FODMAP Foods

FODMAPs are found in a wide variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, milk products, and sweeteners. Many people are able to eat high-FODMAP foods without issue. But for other people, high-FODMAP foods cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, gas, and bloating. 

Foods high in FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are poorly absorbed in the gut and cause problems by drawing water out of the intestines and producing gas as they ferment. By eating low-FODMAP foods, you may be better able to control symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

This article offers a list of common high-FODMAP and low-FODMAP foods. These lists were compiled from research by Monash University, the institution which spearheaded FODMAP research and introduced the first low-FODMAP diet to treat IBS in 2005.

High-FODMAP Food List

bowl of mixed legumes

Katarina Lofgren / Maskot

The following foods are considered high in FODMAPs:


  • Apples
  • Apricots
  • Blackberries
  • Cherries
  • Grapefruit
  • Mango
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches
  • Pears
  • Plums and prunes
  • Pomegranates
  • Watermelon
  • High concentration of fructose from canned fruit, dried fruit, or fruit juice


  • Barley
  • Couscous​
  • Farro
  • Rye
  • Semolina
  • Wheat

Lactose-Containing Foods

  • Buttermilk
  • Cream
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Margarine
  • Milk (cow, goat, sheep)
  • Soft cheese, including cottage cheese and ricotta
  • Yogurt (regular and Greek)

Dairy Substitutes

  • Oat milk (although a 1/8 serving is considered low-FODMAP)
  • Soy milk


  • Baked beans
  • Black-eyed peas
  • Butter beans
  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils
  • Kidney beans
  • Lima beans
  • Soybeans
  • Split peas


  • Agave
  • Fructose
  • High-fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Isomalt
  • Maltitol
  • Mannitol
  • Molasses
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol


  • Artichokes
  • Asparagus
  • Beets
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery
  • Garlic
  • Leeks
  • Mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Onions
  • Peas
  • Scallions (white parts)
  • Shallots
  • Snow peas
  • Sugar snap peas

Low-FODMAP Food List

grilled chicken over vegetables

Cristina Cassinelli / Getty Images

The following foods have been identified as being lower in FODMAPs:


  • Avocado (limit 1/8 portion)
  • Banana
  • Blueberry
  • Cantaloupe
  • Grapes
  • Honeydew melon
  • Kiwi
  • Lemon
  • Lime
  • Mandarin oranges
  • Olives
  • Orange
  • Papaya
  • Plantain
  • Pineapple
  • Raspberry
  • Rhubarb
  • Strawberry
  • Tangelo


  • Artificial sweeteners that do not end in -ol (like sorbitol or xylitol)
  • Brown sugar
  • Glucose
  • Maple syrup
  • Powdered sugar
  • Sugar (sucrose)

Dairy and Alternatives

  • Almond milk
  • Coconut milk (limit 1/2 cup)
  • Hemp milk
  • Rice milk
  • Butter
  • Certain cheeses, such as brie, camembert, mozzarella, Parmesan
  • Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, ice cream, and yogurt


  • Arugula (rocket lettuce)
  • Bamboo shoots
  • Bell peppers
  • Broccoli
  • Bok choy
  • Carrots
  • Celery root
  • Collard greens
  • Common cabbage
  • Corn (half a cob)
  • Eggplant
  • Endive
  • Fennel
  • Green beans
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Parsley
  • Parsnip
  • Potato
  • Radicchio 
  • Scallions (green parts only)
  • Spinach, baby
  • Squash
  • Sweet potato
  • Swiss chard
  • Tomato
  • Turnip
  • Water chestnut
  • Zucchini



  • Almonds (limit 10)
  • Brazil nuts
  • Hazelnuts (limit 10)
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Pecan
  • Pine nuts
  • Walnuts


  • Caraway
  • Chia
  • Pumpkin
  • Sesame
  • Sunflower

Protein Sources

  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Shellfish
  • Tempeh
  • Tofu
  • Turkey

Working With a Dietitian

If you are interested in following a low-FODMAP diet, experts recommend that you work with a qualified dietary professional, specifically a registered dietitian (RD) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Unlike a nutritionist, whose training and scope of practice can vary, dietitians receive specific training in medical nutrition therapy and hold at least a bachelor’s degree in nutrition. The training includes the management of gastrointestinal disorders like IBS.

There are risks to designing your own FODMAP diet. While it may be tempting to pick foods based on your own personal preference, this could lead to continued symptoms because you’re not strictly following a low-FODMAP diet as outlined by Monash University.

Working with a licensed dietitian will also help ensure that you receive balanced nutrition every day. This includes eating enough dietary fiber.

Be sure to discuss your dietary plans with your primary healthcare provider. They can tell you if the plan is safe and appropriate for you and ensure that it does not interfere with any treatments you have been prescribed.


High-FODMAP foods like dairy and legumes cause higher levels of gas and liquid in the intestines. Low-FODMAP fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, and protein are less likely to cause symtoms like gas and bloating and may be ideal if you are struggling with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

To get the most out of a low-FODMAP diet, work with a registered dietitian (RD) who can help you choose the right combination of foods that meet your daily nutritional needs.

3 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Nanayakkara WS, Skidmore PM, O'Brien L, Wilkinson TJ, Gearry RB. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2016;9:131-142. doi:10.2147/CEG.S86798

  2. Monash University. First in FODMAP research.

  3. Roseman MG, Miller SN. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: updated 2021 standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in management of food and nutrition systems. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021;121(6):1157-1174.e29. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2021.02.007

By Barbara Bolen, PhD
Barbara Bolen, PhD, is a licensed clinical psychologist and health coach. She has written multiple books focused on living with irritable bowel syndrome.