High and Low-FODMAP Diet Foods to Eat

The FODMAP theory holds that consuming foods high in "FODMAPs"—short for fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols, a collection of short-chain carbohydrates found in many common foods—results in increased volume of liquid and gas in the small and large intestine.

This increased volume contributes to symptoms such as abdominal paingas, and bloating, and the motility problems of diarrhea and constipation. The theory proposes that following a low-FODMAP diet should result in a decrease in these symptoms. 

Research has also indicated there appears to be a cumulative effect of these foods on symptoms. In other words, eating more high-FODMAP foods at the same time will add up, resulting in symptoms that you might not experience if you ate the food in isolation.

Woman shopping for fruits in grocery store.

Luis Alvarez / Getty Images

Work With a Professional Dietitian

In the next two sections, you will find lists of common high- and low-FODMAP foods. This list is based on the most updated research from Monash University and may change over time. In addition, you may have your own individual sensitivities to foods.

If you are interested in following a low-FODMAP diet, it is recommended that you work individually with a qualified dietary professional.

There are risks to devising your own diet. It is tempting to pick certain items based on your personal preference, which could result in continued symptoms due to a lack of strict compliance with a sanctioned low-FODMAP diet.

Working with a trained dietary professional will also help to ensure that you receive adequate and balanced nutrition, including a healthy intake of dietary fiber. As with any new treatment or dietary approach, it is always best to discuss the issue with your own personal physician.

High-FODMAP Food List

bowl of mixed legumes
Katarina Lofgren/Maskot

The following foods have been identified as being high in FODMAPs.


These fruits are high in FODMAPs:

  • Apples
  • Apricots
  • Blackberries
  • Cherries
  • Grapefruit
  • Mango
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches
  • Pears
  • Plums and prunes
  • Pomegranates
  • Watermelon
  • High concentration of fructose from canned fruit, dried fruit or fruit juice


These grains are high in FODMAPs:

  • Barley
  • Couscous​
  • Farro
  • Rye
  • Semolina
  • Wheat

Lactose-Containing Foods

These foods contain lactose, which is a FODMAP:

  • Buttermilk
  • Cream
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Margarine
  • Milk (cow, goat, sheep)
  • Soft cheese, including cottage cheese and ricotta
  • Yogurt (regular and Greek)

Dairy Substitutes

These are high in FODMAPs:

  • Oat milk (although a 1/8 serving is considered low-FODMAP)
  • Soy milk (U.S.)


These legumes are high in FODMAPs:

  • Baked beans
  • Black-eyed peas
  • Butter beans
  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils
  • Kidney beans
  • Lima beans
  • Soybeans
  • Split peas


Sweeteners high in FODMAPs include:

  • Agave
  • Fructose
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Isomalt
  • Maltitol
  • Mannitol
  • Molasses
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol


These vegetables are high in FODMAPs:

  • Artichokes
  • Asparagus
  • Beets
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery
  • Garlic
  • Leeks
  • Mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Onions
  • Peas
  • Scallions (white parts)
  • Shallots
  • Snow peas
  • Sugar snap peas

Low-FODMAP Food List

grilled chicken over vegetables
Cristina Cassinelli/Photolibrary/Getty Images

The following foods have been identified as being low in FODMAPs.


Fruits that are lower in FODMAPs include:

  • Avocado (limit 1/8 of whole)
  • Banana
  • Blueberry
  • Cantaloupe
  • Grapes
  • Honeydew melon
  • Kiwi
  • Lemon
  • Lime
  • Mandarin oranges
  • Olives
  • Orange
  • Papaya
  • Plantain
  • Pineapple
  • Raspberry
  • Rhubarb
  • Strawberry
  • Tangelo


For those lower in FODMAPs, choose:

  • Artificial sweeteners that do not end in -ol
  • Brown sugar
  • Glucose
  • Maple syrup
  • Powdered sugar
  • Sugar (sucrose)

Dairy and Alternatives

Select from these for lower FODMAPs:

  • Almond milk
  • Coconut milk (limit 1/2 cup)
  • Hemp milk
  • Rice milk
  • Butter
  • Certain cheeses, such as  brie, camembert, mozzarella, Parmesan
  • Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, ice cream, and yogurt


Those lower in FODMAPs include:

  • Arugula (rocket lettuce)
  • Bamboo shoots
  • Bell peppers
  • Broccoli
  • Bok choy
  • Carrots
  • Celeriac
  • Collard greens
  • Common Cabbage
  • Corn (half a cob)
  • Eggplant
  • Endive
  • Fennel
  • Green beans
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Parsley
  • Parsnip
  • Potato
  • Radicchio 
  • Scallions (green parts only)
  • Spinach, baby
  • Squash
  • Sweet potato
  • Swiss chard
  • Tomato
  • Turnip
  • Water chestnut
  • Zucchini


These grains are lower in FODMAPs:

  • Amaranth
  • Brown rice
  • Bulgur wheat (limit to 1/4 cup cooked)
  • Oats
  • Gluten-free products
  • Quinoa
  • Spelt products


Choose these that are lower in FODMAPs:

  • Almonds (limit 10)
  • Brazil nuts
  • Hazelnuts (limit 10)
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Pecan
  • Pine nuts
  • Walnuts


These seeds are lower in FODMAPs:

  • Caraway
  • Chia
  • Pumpkin
  • Sesame
  • Sunflower

Protein Sources

Those lower in FODMAPs include:

  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Shellfish
  • Tofu and tempeh
  • Turkey

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Is there a low FODMAP-friendly version of pizza?

    Yes. Gluten-free pizza with mozzarella cheese can be a low FODMAP option. For the sauce, stick to a tomato base without garlic and onions.

  • Is a low FODMAP diet good for you?

    It depends. For those who suffer from IBS, a low FODMAP diet may significantly reduce symptoms and improve your quality of life. However, for other people, the diet has no benefits to justify the food restrictions and increased risk of malnutrition. 

  • Why are FODMAPS bad?

    For some people, the FODMAP carbohydrates aren't digested well. The FODMAPs cause bloating and are quickly fermented by bacteria, which produces gas. The result is ongoing gastrointestinal problems.

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4 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. 2. Gibson P, Shepherd S. Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approachJ Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25(2):252-258. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06149.x

  2. Beyond Celiac. What are FODMAPS and what’s the connection to celiac disease and gluten sensitivity? Published October 28, 2015.

  3. Dieterich W, Zopf Y. Gluten and fodmaps—sense of a restriction/when is restriction necessary? Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1957. doi:10.3390%2Fnu11081957

  4. Shepherd SJ, Lomer MCE, Gibson PR. Short-chain carbohydrates and functional gastrointestinal disorders. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013;108(5):707-717. doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.96

Additional Reading
  • Monash University Low FODMAP Diet App 

  • Barrett, J. & Gibson, P. "Clinical Ramifications of Malabsorption of Fructose and Other Short-Chain Carbohydrates" Practical Gastroenterology 2007 XXXI:51-65