Foot Pain Causes and Treatments

There are many sites of foot pain, but when most people talk about foot pain they are describing pain under the ball of the foot. Metatarsalgia is the medical term for pain under the ball of the foot. It often occurs in association with deformities of the foot, although it may also occur without an obvious structural abnormality.

Person rubbing their foot
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Metatarsalgia occurs in the region between the arch and the toes. The medical term comes from the name of the bones that are in this part of the foot: the metatarsals. The metatarsals are long bones at the base of each toe. Sometimes pressure on the ends of the metatarsal bones causes symptoms in the ball of the foot.

There are many other causes of foot pain in other parts of the foot. Some other areas of the foot that can be sources of pain include:

Metatarsalgia can be caused by increased pressure on the metatarsal heads. The cause of increased pressure in this part of the foot can be either due to deformities of the foot or from pressure from sources outside the foot, such as footwear.

Structural issues usually have to do with the metatarsal bone, and the most common variation in people with foot pain is a long second metatarsal. Other variations include abnormal joint alignment (increased extension) of the joint of the metatarsal with the toe (called the metacarpophalangeal joint).

There are a number of conditions that can cause enlargement of the metatarsal head, also commonly associated with foot pain. These conditions include different types of arthritis, osteonecrosis, neuromas, tumors, or infections. Lastly, traumatic injuries, including fractures and ligament tears, can cause this type of foot pain.


Tests used to make a diagnosis of metatarsalgia usually include X-rays, often obtained while standing to assess the foot anatomy while supporting the weight of the body. MRI tests can also be helpful, especially when the structure of the foot is found to be normal.


Treatment of foot pain often consists of anti-inflammatory medications, footwear modifications, and inserts for your shoes.

When buying footwear, look for shoes with a wide toebox, good support, and avoid high heels. Simple inserts can help with many types of foot pain. Metatarsal pads are best for the treatment of metatarsalgia. These pads help to take pressure off the ball of the foot.

If some simple steps do not alleviate your symptoms, you should see your healthcare provider to ensure you are receiving adequate treatment.

Conditions that cause inflammation of the forefoot may also benefit from a cortisone injection. Cortisone is a powerful anti-inflammatory medication, and the injection allows a high concentration of this medication to be delivered directly to the area of the problem.

In some rare situations, patients don't find relief with shoe modifications and may require a surgical procedure. The usual surgical procedure is called a metatarsal osteotomy to correct the abnormality of the metatarsal bone. An osteotomy is a surgical procedure to deliberately fracture a bone to change the length and/or alignment of the bone. This can alter the forces of weight-bearing in the forefoot to relieve the symptoms of foot pain.

2 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Besse JL. Metatarsalgia. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2017;103(1S):S29-S39. doi:10.1016/j.otsr.2016.06.020

  2. Espinosa N, Brodsky JW, Maceira E. Metatarsalgia. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18(8):474-85. doi:10.5435/00124635-201008000-00004

Additional Reading
  • Espinosa N, et al. Metatarsalgia. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18:474-85.

By Jonathan Cluett, MD
Jonathan Cluett, MD, is board-certified in orthopedic surgery. He served as assistant team physician to Chivas USA (Major League Soccer) and the United States men's and women's national soccer teams.