Gluten-Related Neurological Symptoms and Conditions

There's no question that gluten can affect your neurological system: people with both celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity report symptoms that range from headaches and brain fog to peripheral neuropathy (tingling in your extremities).

Neurological illnesses such as epilepsy, depression, and anxiety also are common in those who react to gluten. In addition, a serious autoimmune condition called gluten ataxia affects a small number of people.

There are hints that conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder also may be affected by gluten intake in a few individuals. However, it's not yet clear from the research who might be affected, while it does show a gluten-free diet can help some people. Here's a rundown of the neurological conditions impacted by gluten.

woman with nerve connections
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Depression and Anxiety

Research shows that people with celiac disease suffer from much higher-than-average rates of depression and anxiety.

People who test negative for celiac disease but who have been diagnosed with gluten sensitivity also report higher levels of depression and anxiety, although the links between the conditions are less clear because they haven't been studied thoroughly.

It's not clear why gluten ingestion leads to these two neurological conditions. Researchers have speculated that gluten-related intestinal damage might lead to nutritional deficiencies that cause depression and anxiety in people with celiac disease (deficits in certain B vitamins can cause some symptoms).

However, that wouldn't explain why people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (who don't get intestinal damage from gluten) also suffer from those two mental conditions.

Some gluten sensitivity experts—notably, New Zealand pediatrician Dr. Rodney Ford—have hypothesized that gluten affects your brain directly to cause these conditions, but this theory hasn't been proven. Regardless, you're far from alone if you experience depression and anxiety from gluten.

Brain Fog and ADHD

Many people with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity can tell quickly when they've accidentally been glutened. Their brains cloud up and they feel less effective, even stupid and clumsy. This phenomenon, known as brain fog, has received little study, but it's another extremely common symptom for both celiac and gluten sensitivity.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is another frequent complaint, in both adults and children. People who have kids with gluten problems can attest that school performance is much better when their diets are free of gluten!

Migraines

Migraines are commonly mentioned as both celiac disease symptoms and gluten sensitivity symptoms. Up to one-third of people with these conditions report experiencing migraine headache pain.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy results when neurons in the brain fire incorrectly, leading to seizures and potentially even unconsciousness. Celiac disease also has been associated with a rare constellation of epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications.

Vertigo

Vertigo—or a sensation of dizziness and spinning—occurs due to a malfunction in the balance system housed in your inner ear. There are two studies potentially linking Meniere's disease (a form of vertigo) with celiac disease, but anecdotal complaints of vertigo are frequent among people with celiac disease.

Peripheral Neuropathy

People who have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity have high levels of peripheral neuropathy, which causes a tingling or "pins-and-needles" sensation in your feet and fingers. The sensation stems from damage to the nerves in your extremities, and the condition may improve once you go gluten-free.

Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

There have been many reports suggesting gluten could be implicated in two very serious psychiatric conditions—bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

In bipolar disorder, there are a few studies that indicate people with celiac or gluten sensitivity may have higher rates of the mental condition. There's also an intriguing study that looked at levels of antibodies to gluten in the bloodstream of people with bipolar disorder and found high levels in those in the midst of a manic episode.

In schizophrenia, meanwhile, there have been decades of speculation that eliminating bread (a major source of gluten) from the diet of people with schizophrenia can help. Research has shown a gluten-free diet can have benefits to individuals with schizophrenia, but more study is needed.

Autoimmune Brain Damage

When gluten consumption causes your body to attack its own tissues, you have a gluten-induced autoimmune condition. The three of these conditions are celiac disease (damage to the small intestine), dermatitis herpetiformis (damage to the skin), and gluten ataxia (damage to the brain).

When you have gluten ataxia, your immune system attacks your cerebellum, the part of your brain responsible for coordination. In many cases, the damage is irreversible, although a strict gluten-free diet can halt the progression of the condition.

Gluten ataxia can impact the nervous system. The number of people who have it is thought to be very small. However, many more people with celiac or gluten sensitivity have symptoms similar to those seen in gluten ataxia.

Gluten-Free Diet

There's no question that celiac disease and gluten sensitivity can lead to a wide array of neurological problems and conditions. However, in many cases, you can reduce or even resolve your gluten-related neurological symptoms by following a strict gluten-free diet.

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