Signs of Higher-Order Aberrations

Aberrations are deviations from normal vision, such as blurring in an image. Most people are familiar with the terms farsightedness (hyperopia), nearsightedness (myopia), and astigmatism. These are considered lower-order aberrations and account for most of the human eye’s vision imperfections. However, another category of refractive errors that has not received as much attention is higher-order aberrations. All eyes have at least some degree of higher-order aberrations. These aberrations are now more recognized because technology has been developed to diagnose them properly.

Measuring higher order aberrations of the eye
ONOKY / Eric Audras / Getty Images

Signs and Symptoms

The eye often has several different higher-order aberrations working together. It is sometimes hard to single out individual symptoms that may point to another diagnosis. Some higher-order aberrations can, however, produce patient complaints such as:

  • Glare
  • Halos
  • Starburst effect
  • Ghost images
  • Blurring

Causes

The human eye sometimes produces distortions of an image. These distortions are called aberrations. As a ray of light passes through an optical system, it has a wavefront. In a perfect eye, the wavefront is undisturbed and smooth. In an eye with imperfections, the wavefront becomes distorted and has a characteristic three-dimensional shape. Higher-order aberrations may be caused by irregular curvatures in the cornea and lens, trauma, scarring, dry eyes, and very large pupils.

Diagnosis

Higher-order aberrations are measured most commonly by a device called an aberrometer, which measures the wavefront of the eye and compares it to an eye that has no aberrations. This aberration map is referred to as the eye’s “optical fingerprint” because it is unique and unlike any other person’s optical system. Unlike traditional vision measurements, which require subjective input from the patient, an aberrometer takes only seconds to obtain measurements and requires no patient input.

Treatment

Wavefront technology has helped to produce accurate measurements and diagnoses of higher-order aberrations. Specially designed glasses, contact lenses, intraocular lens implants, and wavefront-guided laser vision correction can correct higher-order aberrations.

5 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Rampat R, Malet J, Dumas L, Gatinel D. Wavefront sensing, novel lower degree/higher degree polynomial decomposition and its recent clinical applications: a review. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020;68(12):2670. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1760_20

  2. Jamerson EC, Elhusseiny AM, ElSheikh RH, Eleiwa TK, El Sayed YM. Role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in ocular surface disorders. Eye Contact Lens. 2020;46(2):S57-S63. doi:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000668

  3. Koh S. Irregular astigmatism and higher-order aberrations in eyes with dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018;59(14):DES36. doi:10.1167/iovs.17-23500

  4. Suliman A, Rubin A. A review of higher order aberrations of the human eye. Afr Vis Eye Health. 2019;78(1). doi:10.4102/aveh.v78i1.501

  5. Atas MCD, Landicho LMT, Lobo AD, et al. Development of wavefront sensor using Shack-Hartmann principle. In: 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Communication and Control, Environment, and Management (HNICEM). Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE; 2019:1-5.