How to Recognize and Treat Chigger Bites

Chiggers are the larvae (babies) of harvest mites or Trombiculidae. Closely related to ticks, these mites are arachnids, part of the same family that includes spiders and scorpions.

Chiggers don't bite like ticks, but they have similar ​mouth parts. Their smaller mouths cannot hold on very tight, which means they usually go for thinner skin. They don't prefer humans because we're big bullies. We easily brush or wash chiggers away when they bite us (when we can catch them in the act), something their preferred prey—birds and reptiles—don't do.

Prevent and Treat Chigger Bites
Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell

Hidden Chiggers

Chiggers are so small, you are unlikely to ever see them. The way you're most likely going to find them is by finding their bites.

More than a few mites can fit on the head of a pin. The larvae, which are even smaller, do the biting. Since they're that small, prevention is the key to avoiding the bites. If you do see an "adult chigger" (a mite), it might be too late. Chiggers lay eggs in the spring and summer, and that's when you're likely to be bitten.

Recognizing Chigger Bites

Chiggers prefer to bite vulnerable places, like folds of skin and the areas around the bases of hair follicles. Armpits and groins meet both of those requirements. When they bite, they inject saliva. The saliva contains enzymes that liquefy skin cells, and the chiggers suck out the liquid.

When chiggers bite you, your body reacts by hardening the cells up against the bite, which creates a tube. The tube acts as a perfect straw to help the chigger as it continues to suck out your liquid skin. It's gross to most people, but other than irritating your skin and making you itch, it's not going to harm you.

The irritation that triggers the body to fight back and harden the area is what leads to itching. Chigger bites are well known for severe itching and creating red, raised bumps. These bumps cover large areas around the ankles, groin, armpits and around the waist near the belt line.

In North America, chiggers are harmless other than the itching. In Asia, on the other hand, chiggers can spread scrub typhus.

Preventing Chigger Bites

The good news is that if you use a bug spray containing DEET, it will prevent chigger bites. Even if you wear socks and hiking shoes, use bug spray with DEET on any exposed skin. Bigger threats like snakes often live in the same type of environment where chiggers hang out. So it's a good idea to combine shoes, socks, and spray when you're enjoying the outdoors.

Treating Chigger Bites

Chigger bites can become scaly and may continue to itch for several days after the bites first appear. If the chiggers do manage to bite you, get rid of them by washing and then work on getting relief from the itching.

Wash Them Off

When you first notice the bites, chances are the chiggers are still on your skin, feasting away. Get rid of chiggers by washing them off. Lather up the area with warm water and soap and rinse it off. Repeat the soap treatment at least once to get all the chiggers.

If you don't have access to warm, soapy water, rub down with a clean cloth or towel. It doesn't take much to knock off feeding chiggers.

Itch Relief

Over-the-counter lotions like calamine with or without Benadryl (diphenhydramine) can be used to try to stop the itching, but mostly you'll just have to wait it out. It may take 10 to 14 days for the itching to go away.

Look for Infection

Chigger bites have just as much chance of getting infected as any other bug bite. Scratching increases the risk of infection. It's important to keep an eye on any bite that blisters, even a tiny chigger bite. The bacterial infection impetigo can develop, with signs of pus and crusts around the bites after 24 hours. If you see a spreading area of redness, pain, swelling, and warmth, it is a sign of cellulitis. See your doctor if you have these symptoms.

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Article Sources

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