New IBD Drug Entyvio Is Not for the Faint of Immune System

Possible adverse effect of Entyvio concerns physicians

In This Article

Entyvio (vedolizumab) is a new drug aimed at helping people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a debilitating illness that erodes quality of life in those affected. Its maker (Takeda Pharmaceuticals), the FDA, but some gastroenterologists everywhere worry that people who take Entyvio may open themselves up to infection with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).

PML is a rare infection of the central nervous system usually only experienced by those with severely compromised immune systems (such as people with AIDS). So far, Entyvio hasn't yet caused PML in any people taking it, but PML is reported in about two people in 1,000 with the α4 integrin antagonist natalizumab, its chemical cousin. No cases have been reported to date with vedolizumab, a selective antagonist of the α4β7 integrin expressed on gut-homing lymphocytes.

What Is IBD?

Your gut is a dirty place. It's filled with bacteria that help you digest your food. Remember that bacteria are germs that would cause a mega-immune reaction if they were anywhere outside the gut.

Consequently, the immune cells in the gut are on constant guard, and physiological inflammation is the status quo. Fortunately, through complex mechanisms, the body dampens the full-on activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Granted all this postulating is just consensus hypothesis, but given what is known about IBD, it makes sense.

As is evident from its name, inflammatory bowel disease is a condition whose hallmark is inflammation. It has a bimodal distribution with peak ages of onset between 15 and 30 and 60 and 80 with an increased prevalence in Ashkenazi Jews. The clinical symptoms of IBD are nasty: abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding, anemia, and weight loss. It can also manifest in anatomic locations outside the gut and cause arthritis, eye problems (uveitis and iritis), rash (erythema nodosum) and more.

IBD encompasses ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although similar in many ways, there are some key differences between these two types of IBD. Ulcerative colitis is confined to the colon and hits confluent or contiguous portions of the bowel; whereas Crohn's disease can affect any part of the GI tract (from mouth to anus) and is patchy in its pathology, tending to skip areas of the GI tract. Most commonly, Crohn's disease messes up the real estate adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Crohn's disease also causes transmural lesions which affect the entire thickness of the bowel resulting in strictures or even fistulas (unwelcome passageways between parts of the intestine).

With respect to IBD, physicians aim to control acute exacerbations or flare-ups, maintain remission from such flare-ups and treat fistulas and obstructions (caused by strictures) and provide other measures of symptomatic treatment. Most people with IBD end up having surgery at some point in their lives.

The mainstay of most medical treatment of IBD has historically included immunosuppressant drugs such as glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Azathioprine and cyclosporine are other anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drugs that are useful in treating IBD. Most recently, biologic agents such as the aforementioned natalizumab and Entyvio (vedolizumab) have been used to treat IBD.

Since biologic medications are more likely to lead to remission (and hence, a reduction in complications), these medications are now recommended first-line (right away after diagnosis rather than waiting for other treatments to fail or stop working) for people with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.

How Entyvio Works

According to the FDA:

"Entyvio is an integrin receptor antagonist. Integrin receptors are proteins expressed on the surface of certain cells. Integrin receptors function as bridges for cell-cell interactions. Entyvio blocks the interaction of a specific integrin receptor (expressed on circulating inflammatory cells) with a specific protein (expressed on cells in the interior wall of blood vessels), and thereby blocks the migration of those circulating inflammatory cells across those blood vessels and into areas of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract."

Furthermore, according to the FDA:

"Results showed that a greater percentage of participants treated with Entyvio compared to a placebo achieved and maintained clinical response, achieved and maintained clinical remission, achieved corticosteroid-free clinical remission, and as seen during endoscopy, had improved appearance of the colon."

In other words, Entyvio works by mitigating inflammation in the GI tract and has proven effective when treating flare-ups and maintaining steroid-free remission. Of note, a meta-analysis of Entyvio and other biologic agents showed that Entyvio was equally effective at maintaining remission in people with ulcerative colitis as other types of biologic agents. 

In the past, Entyvio (or another biologic) was recommended only if a person was unable to tolerate other medications or the medications had stopped working. According to 2020 guidelines, adults who have moderate to severe ulcerative colitis should begin treatment with these drugs right away. Of the different biologics available, Entyvio or Remicade (infliximab) are recommended over other options for those who have not previously been on a biologic medication.

If remission occurs during treatment with Entyvio, it should be continued as maintenance therapy for the disease (not stopped or the disease could reappear). Entyvio may be prescribed with or without an immunomodulator medication.

Possible Risks of PML

So far, documented adverse reactions caused by Entyvio are mostly limited to headache, joint pain, nausea, and fever. More serious reactions included allergy and hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity). But physicians, government officials, and the drug's maker are on the lookout for a much more serious adverse effect that has yet to rear its ugly head: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).

PML is a neurological disease that results from infection with the John Cunningham (JC) virus. Most of us have antibodies to this virus and infection in healthy people is exceedingly rare. But in people whose immune systems are leveled by HIV, cancer, sarcoidosis, and other diseases, PML can take hold.

In people with PML, the JC virus demyelinates oligodendrocytes or nerve cells primarily in the cerebral hemispheres but also brain stem or cerebellum. In other words, this virus strips our white matter of myelin needed for nerve conduction. Symptoms include dementia, vision problems, paralysis (hemiparesis), trouble speaking (aphasia), and sensory impairment.

Within three months, PML kills from 30% to 50% of those infected. Prognosis for those who develop PML on account of natalizumab therapy for multiple sclerosis is a bit better; more than 20% die. But even for those who end up living with PML, disability is profound. Research shows 711 people treated with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis developed PML, and three people treated for Crohn's developed the disease.

It's important to know that we have yet to observe PML in people taking Entyvio. The FDA and Entyvio's maker are closely watching for cases of PML secondary to Entyvio administration and are currently conducting post-marketing studies and facilitating advanced and expedited reporting of adverse effects.

Cautions and Contraindications

People who have an allergy to Entyvio or similar medications should not receive the treatment. Entyvio should not be started if you are coping with an active, severe infection until the infection is controlled. It should also be avoided by people who have liver problems.

During treatment, people should be monitored closely if they develop an infection and liver function tests should be monitored.

Drug Interactions

There are some medications that should not be combined with Entyvio as well as some that should be used with caution. Entyvio should not be used with other anti-TNF medications such as Humira (adalimumab), Remicade (infliximab), Simponi (golimumab), Embrel (etanercept), Cimzia (certolizumab), Gilenya (Natalizumab) and others. Combining these medications with Entyvio could increase the risk of PML and other infections.

Vaccines

Immunizations should be updated according to guidelines prior to starting Entyvio.

Live-attenuated vaccines should, in general, be avoided while taking Entyvio, although the manufacturer states that these may be used if the benefits outweigh the risks. Examples of live vaccines in MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella), chickenpox, and yellow fever. Inactivated vaccines may be used, although the response to the immunization may be suboptimal. Examples include hepatitis A, flu (the shot form only), and tetanus.

A Word From Verywell

If you or a loved one has IBD, especially IBD that is unresponsive to steroids and other immunomodulators, Entyvio looks like promising treatment. However, before beginning treatment with Entyvio, it's imperative that you disclose any current infections or infections that "don't go away" and may suggest a weakened immune system.

Taking Entyvio can sometimes significantly improve a person's quality of life by inducing remission of the disease. That said, it's important to become familiar with potential side effects and complications so you can be your best advocate in your care. If you do develop neurological problems (or really any significant problems) while on Entyvio, it's imperative that you immediately contact your health care provider.

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Additional Reading
  • "Vedolizumab (Entyvio) for Inflammatory Bowel Disease" from The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics published on 9/15/2014.
  • Prescriber's Digital Reference. Vedolizumab.

  • Rosario M, Dirks NL, Milch C, et al. A Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Immunogenicity of Vedolizumab. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2017;56(11):1287–1301. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0546-0

  • Friedman S, Blumberg RS. Chapter 295. Inflammatory Bowel Disease. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  • Greenberg DA, Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Chapter 5. Dementia & Amnestic Disorders. In: Greenberg DA, Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. eds. Clinical Neurology, 8e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  • Wallace JL, Sharkey KA. Chapter 47. Pharmacotherapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011.