What Is Insulin Pump Therapy?

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Tens of thousands of people of all ages who have diabetes and must take insulin opt to use an insulin pump rather than rely on multiple daily injections. Many studies have shown improved glucose management outcomes while using insulin pumps in the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Insulin pump therapy allows for more flexibility and has the potential to even out the wide blood sugar fluctuations that are often experienced when injecting insulin, but it also has potential disadvantages. It's important to know about both and to discuss them with your healthcare provider in order to determine if it's the right choice for you.

Young diabetic patient keeps an insulin pump in the pocket
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Types of Insulin Pump Therapy

All insulin pumps provide a slow, steady stream of fast- or short-acting basal insulin, also known as "background insulin," with an option to deliver a larger dose of additional insulin (known as a bolus) before or between meals to correct hyperglycemia.

These devices primarily differ in how they attach and deliver insulin to the body.

Traditional Insulin Pumps

Consisting of an insulin reservoir and pump, these devices connect to the body via tubing and use a cannula to house a needle for insulin delivery. The pump is usually pre-set by a healthcare provider to deliver a specified number of units of insulin, but can be manually adjusted to calculate the bolus amount.

Patch Insulin Pumps

These devices consist of a small reservoir and pump set inside a small case that adheres to the body and delivers insulin without tubes or wires. The insulin delivery and cannula insertion are controlled wirelessly through an external device that lets the wearer calculate and program bolus dosage.

Sensor-Augmented Pumps (SAPs)

SAPs use a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) along with the insulin pump to provide regular updates of your blood glucose levels, eliminating the need for fingerprick tests several times a day.

Hybrid Closed-Loop Pumps

The closest device to an artificial pancreas, closed-loop systems automatically deliver basal insulin based on blood glucose readings from a CGM approximately every five minutes. They take a lot of the guesswork out of insulin therapy and can alter dosage depending on your personal glucose readings.


Insulin pump therapy has several advantages over standard glucose monitoring. Here's what makes them worth considering with your healthcare provider when you devise an initial diabetes management plan or if you'd like to make a change to your current plan.

  • Freedom from syringes: Insulin pumps eliminate the need for insulin injections using a syringe. Instead of giving yourself multiple injections with a syringe every day, you simply reinsert a fresh needle for the insulin pump once every two to three days.
  • Fewer blood-glucose swings: Since you receive a continuous low dosage of insulin (basal rate) 24 hours a day, you are less likely to experience the rapid drop in glucose levels that can occur after insulin injections with fast-acting insulin. Using an insulin pump often improves your hemoglobin A1C, a marker of average blood glucose levels over three months, showing that insulin pumps help keep blood glucose within the normal range over a longer period of time.
  • Increased flexibility: If your schedule forces you to eat at odd times or to miss a meal occasionally, you can more easily adjust to these circumstances with a pump. Because pumps use fast-acting insulin, bolus insulin can be given to cover a meal with the simple push of a button.
  • Less risk of low blood glucose: There are greater risks of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) with injections, because you must take larger doses of insulin at one time. The continuous flow of insulin that a pump provides reduces the risk. This is especially helpful at night, when injecting too much insulin could increase the risk of a nocturnal hypoglycemic reaction during sleep.
  • Easier exercise: With an insulin pump in place, you don't have to eat large amounts of carbohydrates before you work out to maintain glucose levels. According to the American Diabetes Association, a pump may be a good choice for active individuals who benefit from changes in basal rates or suspending the pump while they exercise.


Advantages aside, using an insulin pump has a handful of disadvantages you'll want to be aware of when deciding if using one is right for you.

  • Infection risk: If you do not change the insertion site of the cannula (the tube that houses the needle) every two or three days, you risk infection.
  • Checking blood sugar more frequently: This is especially true during the first few months of wearing the pump. Frequent testing is the only way to gauge whether your basal rate and bolus are working as planned. If you're using an insulin pump, you should be willing and able to perform a fingerprick blood test to check your glucose a minimum of four times per day. However, some pumps, such as a sensor-augmented pump, use separate continuous glucose monitors for convenience.
  • It's clunky: When you want to sleep, be active, travel, or get sun at the beach, you may find that being hooked up to the pump can cramp your style and feel bothersome. Note, though, you can disconnect from the pump for short periods without much worry. Patch pumps also tend to be less intrusive.
  • Increased risk of high glucose levels: Disconnecting from the pump for too long or not checking blood glucose frequently could result in high levels, which could lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Price: Insulin pumps can be expensive, and insurance may not always cover the cost.

Getting Started

Know that using an insulin pump isn't an all-or-nothing proposition. Some children and young adults use a pump during the school year and switch to injections only in the summer. Others use a pump year-round and switch to syringes for travel.

Who Should Use an Insulin Pump?

Insulin pumps aren't the perfect tool for everyone with diabetes, and the decision to use an insulin pump should be made based on each person's situation, preferences, and needs.

That said, the American Diabetes Association recommends that insulin pump therapy be an option for those who meet the following criteria:

  • Have type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and need multiple daily injections of insulin to control hyperglycemia, or another type of insulin-deficient diabetes
  • Take multiple daily self-injections of insulin
  • Are able to use the device safely, either by themselves or with the help of a caregiver

While some insulin pumps were once formulated only for adults, all insulin pumps now on the market can be used by children. In addition, be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about the safety of using an insulin pump if you have liver or kidney problems, or are pregnant or breastfeeding.


Many insurance companies will cover the cost of insulin pump therapy, but may not completely cover the cost of supplies. Supplies needed include reservoir cartridges, infusion sets, tubing, cannula, batteries, tape, or adhesive.

Many insurance companies should cover the cost of a glucose monitor or glucometer to use alongside an insulin pump as well.

Pump Management

Once you've committed to using a insulin pump, there are ways to make the experience as effective and successful as possible.

Tuck in the Tubes

Insulin tubing can be awkward to deal with, especially during physical activity or sleep. To wrangle it, clip your pump to an undergarment or tuck it inside a small pocket and wear the tubes underneath clothing so they don't get pulled or tugged accidentally.

Another option is to cut a small hole in your pocket so your tubing can fit through. You may also want to use a bit of medical tape to tape tubes to your body before exercise.

Some users recommend storing the pump inside a baby sock before tucking it under your clothes to protect it from moisture or sweat.

Handling Sports and Physical Activity

While older pumps needed to be disconnected before engaging in physical activity, newer pumps have an exercise mode, and if you have one, taking the pump off is no longer recommended.

However, you'll still need to check your glucose before, during, and after playing sports or exercising. You may also need to take a bolus of insulin and have a small snack an hour prior to activity due to the missed basal dose.

Work with your healthcare provider to come up with an effective protocol to follow.

Be Water-Ready

Most pumps aren't fully waterproof but are merely water-resistant, which means you'll need to take off the pump when swimming or bathing.

Power Up

Some pumps use batteries, while others need to be charged. Carry extra batteries or your charger whenever you travel away from home.

Rotate Infusion Sites

This is a necessary part of using an insulin pump, since—just as with syringe use—pitting or lumps may occur at the insulin delivery site. To safeguard against this, move your infusion site at least one inch away from the previous site every two to three days, or follow your healthcare provider's recommendations.

Wear it Out

It's great to feel super comfortable about wearing your pump in public—just know that you may occasionally get questions from people about your pump if it's readily visible. Many may assume it's a pager or small smartphone.

If the idea of answering questions about your condition bothers you, most insulin pumps are small enough that you can tuck them away from sight. Many companies sell clips and arm bands so that you can wear your pump discreetly if you so choose.

7 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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  2. Sanlioglu AD, Altunbas HA, Balci MK, Griffith TS, Sanlioglu S. Clinical utility of insulin and insulin analogs. Islets. 2013;5(2):67-78. doi:10.4161/isl.24590

  3. Paldus B, Lee MH, O'Neal DN. Insulin pumps in general practice. Aust Prescr. 2018;41(6):186-190. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2018.056

  4. Umpierrez GE, Klonoff DC. Diabetes technology update: use of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring in the hospital. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(8):1579-1589. doi:10.2337/dci18-0002

  5. American Diabetes Association. Insulin pumps: relief and choice.

  6. American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee. 7. Diabetes technology: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022Diabetes Care. 2022;45(Supplement_1):S97-S112. doi:10.2337/dc22-S007

  7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Financial help for diabetes care.

Additional Reading

By Gary Gilles
Gary Gilles is a licensed clinical professional counselor (LCPC) who has written about type 1 diabetes and served as a diabetes counselor. He began writing about diabetes after his son's diagnosis as an infant.