An Overview of JAK Inhibitors

These drugs can be useful in treating inflammatory diseases

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are a group of medications that inhibit activity and response of one or more of the Janus kinase enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2). These enzymes normally promote inflammation and autoimmunity. By interfering with the enzyme signaling pathways, JAK inhibitors can be used to help treat cancer and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

JAK inhibitors come in pill form, which is typically more appealing than having to get an injection or infusion for a biologic drug.

JAK inhibitors

Verywell / Jiaqi Zhou

Only a handful of JAK inhibitor drugs are currently available in the United States.

They are:

  • Xeljanz (tofacitinib)
  • Olumiant (baricitinib)
  • Jakafi (ruxolitinib)
  • Rinvoq (upadacitinib)

All of the approved JAK inhibitors target all of the JAK enzymes. Several others that are currently in the development pipeline are selective for certain JAK enzymes.

What They Do

Excess inflammation can be a problem in conditions such as RA, cancer, and other inflammatory conditions.

Cytokines are inflammatory proteins that attach to receptors on immune cells. This signals JAK enzymes to add chemical phosphate to their receptors, which attracts signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. The STAT proteins further increase inflammation. 

Overactivity of this process can make you susceptible to all kinds of autoimmune diseases—conditions in which your immune system attacks healthy, normal tissues in your body.

Clinical Guidelines for RA Treatment

Clinical guidelines for RA treatment, published in 2021 by the American College of Rheumatology, doubled down on previous guidance emphasizing the use of methotrexate as the main disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment for as long as possible before adding another medication.

Xeljanz (tofacitinib)

Xeljanz gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 and is one of the most-often prescribed drugs in its class.


Xeljanz is approved for the treatment of:

While it's not currently approved for other uses, several studies have suggested that Xeljanz can be effective at treating:

The drug may be used off-label for these and other conditions.

Formulations and Dosage

The drug is available in a 5 milligram (mg) pill and an 11 mg extended-release tablet.

Ongoing Research

Research about the effect of Xeljanz on psoriasis has yielded positive results.

A 2019 analysis in the British Journal of Dermatology pooled data from one phase 2 study, four phase 3 studies, and one long-term extension study composed of psoriasis patients using tofacitinib. Researchers found that those using tofacitinib experienced a reduction of symptoms, including skin plaques, which led to an improved quality of life.

The drug was well-tolerated, and safety and side effects were similar to those of DMARDs. Further, participants who took 10 mg per day showed greater improvement than those taking 5 mg daily.

The drug's effectiveness was comparable to methotrexate or the biologic Enbrel (etanercept) at a dose of 50 per week. The higher dose was comparable to an Enbrel dose of 100 mg per week.

The authors concluded that Xeljanz has a benefit-risk profile similar to other systemic treatments and is a better option for people who prefer oral therapy over injectable biologics.

Olumiant (baricitinib)

The FDA approved Olumiant in 2018.


Olumiant is approved for adults with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis who did not previously have an adequate response to methotrexate or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapies.

It had been approved in Europe as a second-line treatment for moderate to severe RA in adults, either as a monotherapy (single drug treatment) or in combination with methotrexate.

While unapproved for this use at this time, a 2020 study suggested that combining baricitinib with direct-acting antivirals could reduce infectivity, viral replication, and inflammation associated with COVID-19.

Baricitinib has also been studied as a psoriasis treatment. A 2016 study reported significant improvement in symptoms, but more research is needed. Use for psoriasis is considered off-label.

Formulations and Dosage

Olumiant is available as a 2 mg tablet taken once daily. The FDA did not approve the 4 mg dose, citing serious adverse reactions. Studies had shown that upper respiratory infections and high cholesterol levels were rare but more frequent with baricitinib at higher doses. 

Ongoing Research

According to a 2019 report published in Arthritis & Care Research, Olumiant monotherapy of 4 mg per day provides effective disease control in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

The patients in the study who didn't respond well to baricitinib alone showed improved disease control when methotrexate was added.

Jakafi (ruxolitinib)

Jakafi first became FDA approved in 2011.


Jakifi is approved to treat:

  • Intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis, including primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis, and post-essential thrombrocythemia myelofibrosis
  • Polycythemia vera in adults who either did not respond to or have an intolerance for hydroxyuremia
  • Acute graft-versus-host in adults and children aged 12 and older who did not respond to steroid treatment

Ruxolitinib may be used off-label for several other indications, such as alopecia and plaque psoriasis, and is under investigation for other conditions, including chronic graft-versus-host-disease and certain cancers.

Formulations and Dosage

This drug is available in tablet form in dosages ranging from 5 mg up to 25 mg. Platelet counts must be monitored before starting Jakafi and while taking it due to a risk of thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia.

Ongoing Research

Ruxolitinib (INCB18424) was developed for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis that affects bone marrow, and for polycythemia vera when other treatments have failed. It is designed to inhibit JAK1 and JAK2. Phase 3 studies have shown significant benefits in relieving myelofibrosis symptoms. 

In late 2011, topical Ruxolitinib was approved for treating myelofibrosis. It was approved in 2014 for the treatment of polycythemia vera.

Ruxolitinib clinical trials are currently underway for treating plaque psoriasis, alopecia areata, pancreatic cancer, and two types of lymphoma.

Rinvoq (upadacitinib)

Rinvoq is a newer drug in this group, having received FDA approval in 2019.


Rinvoq is approved for treating adults with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who didn't respond well or couldn't tolerate methotrexate.

Studies are ongoing for Rinvoq as a treatment for:

  • Crohn's disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Psoriasis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Inflammatory bowel disease

These uses haven't been FDA approved and are thus considered off-label.

Formulations and Dosage

This drug is available in a 15 mg tablet form to be taken once a day.

Ongoing Research

Results have generally been positive for Rinvoq as a treatment for the unapproved uses listed above.

Research published in late 2019 reported that upadacitinib was effective and well-tolerated in people with active ankylosing spondylitis who didn't tolerate or respond well to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The authors recommended further investigation of the drug for axial sponyloarthritis types.

What’s in the Pipeline?

Pipeline drugs are currently being developed and tested but aren't yet FDA-approved for any use. Every one of these drugs must go through three phases of clinical trials before it can be brought to the FDA for approval.

Several JAK inhibitors are making their way through the pipeline, undergoing clinical trials that aim to determine their safety and effectiveness in treating a variety of autoimmune conditions.

Filgotinib (GLPG0634)

Filgotinib is a highly selective JAK1 inhibitor being tested as a treatment for:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
  • HIV disease

"Highly selective" means that it targets only certain JAK enzymes rather than a large group of them. Researchers hypothesize this could mean higher doses with fewer side effects.


Phase 3 trials have been concluded. In late 2019, the manufacturer submitted a new drug application (NDA) along with a priority review application, which sometimes speeds up the approval process.

In August 2020, the FDA rejected the drug due to toxicity. Applications have also been submitted to regulatory agencies in Europe and Japan.

Research Highlights

Here's a sample of takeaways from research on filgotinib thus far.

Use for RA:

  • Two phase 2b trials for RA have shown this drug to be effective both in combination with methotrexate and as a monotherapy.
  • Phase 3 trials have shown filgotinib to be effective for people with active RA who didn't respond to or couldn't tolerate biological DMARDs and for those who've never taken methotrexate.
  • One year-long phase 3 trial found results to be consistent for the study's full duration.
  • An analysis comparing filgotinib at different doses and in combination with different RA drugs found that a daily dosage of either 100 mg or 200 mg plus methotrexate was the most effective treatment regimen for RA. The authors report no significant risk of severe side effects.

Use for other diseases:

  • For psoriatic arthritis, a 2020 phase-2 trial demonstrated that filgotinib significantly improved health-related quality of life in 131 participants.
  • For Crohn's disease, a 2017 phase-2 study showed that filgotinib led to remission of symptoms significantly more than placebo in people with active disease.
  • According to a different 2020 study, filgotinib appears to make beneficial changes that may reduce immune-system activation in HIV disease.

Peficitinib (ASP015K)

Peficitinib inhibits two specific enzymes, JAK 1 and JAK 3, and is currently being investigated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


Phase 3 trials are concluded and the manufacturer has submitted a new drug application to the FDA. This drug is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan under the brand name Smyraf.

Research Highlights

  • The drug has been shown to improve RA outcomes in two phase-2b studies.
  • Two phase 3 trials have demonstrated that peficitinib can improve outcomes in people with RA who didn't respond well to other drugs and have moderately-to-severely active disease.
  • Studies suggest peficitinib is superior to placebo at reducing symptoms and suppressing joint damage.
  • It was well-tolerate and had positive results that remained consistent for the full-duration of a year-long study.

Itacitinib (INCB039110)

Itacitinib is under investigation as a treatment for:

  • Plaque psoriasis
  • Chronic graft-vs-host disease

It has also been suggested as a possible therapy for COVID-19 because of specific effects it has on the immune system.


Phase 2 trials are currently underway for testing the efficacy and safety of Itacitinib for treating plaque psoriasis. The drug has moved on to phase 3 for chronic graft-versus-host disease despite failing in trials for the acute form of the condition.

As of mid-2020, research had not yet begun for COVID-19.

Research Highlight

A phase 2 study published in 2016 demonstrated significant improvement in an assessment of plaque psoriasis symptoms.

Abrocitinib (PF-04965842)        

Abrocitinib is an oral selective JAK1 inhibitor currently being investigated for the treatment of:

  • Plaque psoriasis
  • Atopic dermatitis, moderate-to-severe, in adults and adolescents
  • Vitiligo
  • Alopecia Areata
  • Autoimmune diseases with JAK1 involvement


This drug is not yet approved for any use. In June of 2020, phase 2, phase 2b, and phase 3 clinical trials began for abrocitinib as a treatment for atopic dermatitis. At least one phase 2 trial for plaque psoriasis has been completed. Other potential uses are in earlier stages of study.

Research Highlights

  • Abrocitinib has completed at least one phase 2 study the demonstrated it improved symptoms and was well-tolerated.
  • Research from a 2017 British Association of Dermatologists study finds that abrocitinib was well-tolerated and effective in improving symptoms of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.
  • A 2018 study suggested the drug could be beneficial in inflammatory diseases in general. Another paper from that year cites evidence from animal studies suggesting abrocitinib be studied for autoimmune diseases.


SHR0302 is believed to be a highly selective JAK1, JAK2, and JAK3 inhibitor. It's being investigated as a possible treatment for:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Lupus
  • Crohn's disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Alopecia areata
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Myoproliferative neoplasms (a type of blood cancer)
  • Hepatic fibrosis (a liver disease)


This drug is not yet approved for any use. In May 2020, researchers in the U.S. and China launched phase-2 clinical trials for alopecia areata, and Chinese researchers initiated a phase 1 trial for liver impairment. In June 2020, phase 2 and 3 trials began for ankylosing spondylitis.

In 2019, phase 2 clinical trials got underway for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The drug has also reached phase 2 trials for atopic dermatitis. Phase 3 trials for rheumatoid arthritis are expected to conclude in 2022. Preliminary research has begun for lupus.

Research Highlights

So far, very little research on this drug has been concluded and published.

  • A 2019 study out of China suggested that SHR0302 can inhibit the growth of myoproliferative neoplasms and lower inflammation by altering the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. However, these effects were weaker than those of Jakafi.
  • A 2016 study demonstrated that SHR0302 may alleviate hepatic fibrosis by targeting functions of hepatic stellate cells.
  • A 2016 study showed the drug made numerous potentially beneficial changes to the immune function in rats with drug-induced arthritis.


BMS-986165 currently is being studied for treating:

  • Plaque psoriasis (moderate-to-severe)
  • Crohn's disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Lupus
  • Autoimmune disease


As of mid-2020, this drug was in phase 3 trials for plaque psoriasis; phase 2 trials for Crohn's disease, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis; and phase 1 trials for autoimmune diseases in general.

Research Highlights

  • Data from phase II studies show the drug was effective in relieving symptoms in people with plaque psoriasis taking 3 mg or less per day over a period of 12 weeks. 
  • A 2019 study states that BMS-986165 is unique among JAK inhibitors and may have properties making it especially effective against autoimmune diseases.

Why Do Pipeline Drugs Have Code-Like Names?

In its earliest stages, a new drug is given an alpha-numeric name. Later on, it's assigned a generic name. Once it's approved by the FDA, the manufacturer gives it a brand name. Typically, drug names are written with the brand name first and the generic name in parentheses.

Possible Side Effects

All drugs have possible side effects. Each JAK inhibitor has its own unique list of potential adverse events.

There are some that are shared amongst them, however. Some common ones may go away once your body gets used to the medication. Others may persist and have more serious effects.


Common side effects that may go away with use include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Cold symptoms, such as sore throat or a runny or stuffy nose
  • Dizziness
  • Easy bruising
  • Weight gain
  • Bloating and gas
  • Fatigue

Shortness of breath and other serious and ongoing side effects should be reported to your healthcare provider. Some can be managed through lifestyle and medication, while others require a medication change.

Immune-System Suppression

Similar to biologics and traditional DMARDs, JAK inhibitors suppress the immune system. While that's what makes them beneficial, it means they can also increase vulnerability to serious infections—especially upper respiratory and urinary tract infections.

In clinical studies, some people have come down with tuberculosis (TB), a very serious bacterial lung infection. People who take JAK inhibitors also have an increased risk of shingles, a viral infection that causes a painful rash.

If you stop using these drugs due to infection(s), your immune system should return to normal and begin preventing infections again.

Some people may have an increased risk for cancer because JAK inhibitor drugs block the immune processes responsible for preventing tumors. 


JAK inhibitors can also cause anemia (low red cell counts) in some people. This is due to the way they affect proteins the body needs to make red blood cells.

JAK inhibitors are also known for lowering white blood cell counts, a condition called lymphopenia.

These drugs may affect cholesterol numbers as well. Your healthcare provider may need to prescribe a statin drug, such as Lipitor (atorvastatin), to regulate your cholesterol.

Blood clots can occur, resulting in an increased risk of cardiovascular events, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism.

Liver damage is also a possible adverse reaction with JAK inhibitor use. And these drugs are contraindicated in patients with diverticulitis, as they can lead to viscous perforation.

There's also an increased risk of heart-related events, like heart attack or stroke, as well as cancer and death with the use of Xeljanz, Olumiant, and Rinvoq.

A Word From Verywell

If you have an autoimmune condition and are doing well on older drugs (such as biologics or methotrexate), you probably don’t need a JAK inhibitor. However, if you haven't had success with the older treatments, a JAK inhibitor might offer needed relief.

These medications are fairly new, though, and researchers are just learning about their long-term safety. You can talk to your healthcare provider to see if you can take them alongside other medications and supplements (interactions are possible) and report any concerning or ongoing side effects. 

Was this page helpful?
48 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Jamilloux Y, El Jammal T, Vuitton L, et al. JAK inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2019 Nov;18(11):102390. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2019.102390.

  2. Fraenkel L, Bathon JM, England BR, et al. 2021 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Jul;73(7):924-939. doi: 10.1002/acr.24596.

  3. Cinats A, Heck E, Robertson L. Janus kinase inhibitors: A review of their emerging applications in dermatology. Skin Therapy Lett. 2018; 23: 5-9.  

  4. Strober BE, Gottlieb AB, van de Kerkhof PCM, et al. Benefit-risk profile of tofacitinib in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis: Pooled analysis across six clinical trials. Br J Dermatol 2019; 180: 67-75. doi:10.1111/bjd.17149

  5. Eli Lilly and Company: Press Release FDA approves OLUMIANT® (baricitinib) 2-mg tablets for the treatment of adults with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis. Published June 1, 2018. 

  6. Stebbing J, Phelan A, Griffin I, et al. COVID-19: combining antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatmentsLancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(4):400-402. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30132-8

  7. Papp KA, Menter MA, Raman M, et al. A randomized phase 2b trial of baricitinib, an oral Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasisBr J Dermatol. 2016;174(6):1266-1276. doi:10.1111/bjd.14403

  8. Fleischmann RM, et al. Efficacy and safety of long‐term baricitinib with and without methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: experience with baricitinib monotherapy continuation or after switching from methotrexate monotherapy or baricitinib plus methotrexate. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2019 Jun 24; doi:10.1002/acr.24007

  9. Jakafi (ruxolitinim) tablets. Full Prescribing Information. Last revised January 2020.

  10. Fragoulis GE, McInnes IB, Siebert S. JAK-inhibitors. New players in the field of immune-mediated diseases, beyond rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Feb 1;58(Supplement_1):i43-i54. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/key276

  11. U.S. Food and Drug Administration: AccessData. HIghlights of prescribing information: Rinvoq (upadacitinib) extended-release tablets, for oral use. Updated August 2019.

  12. Nader A, Stodtmann S, Friedel A, Mohamed MF, Othman AA. Pharmacokinetics of upadacitinib in healthy subjects and subjects with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or atopic dermatitis: Population analyses of phase 1 and 2 clinical trialsJ Clin Pharmacol. 2020;60(4):528-539. doi:10.1002/jcph.1550

  13. van der Heijde D, Song IH, Pangan AL, et al. Efficacy and safety of upadacitinib in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (SELECT-AXIS 1): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 trialLancet. 2019;394(10214):2108-2117. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32534-6

  14. Sakkas LI, Zafiriou E, Bogdanos DP. Mini review: New treatments in psoriatic arthritis. Focus on the IL-23/17 axisFront Pharmacol. 2019;10:872. Published 2019 Aug 6. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00872

  15. Misselwitz B, Juillerat P, Sulz MC, Siegmund B, Brand S; Swiss IBDnet, an official working group of the Swiss Society of Gastroenterology. Emerging treatment options in inflammatory bowel disease: Janus kinases, stem cells, and more [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 22]. Digestion. 2020;1-14. doi:10.1159/000507782

  16. Vanhoutte F, Mazur M, Van der Aa A, Wigerinck P, van 't Klooster G. Selective JAK1 inhibition in the treatment of rheimatoid arthritis: Proof of concept with GLPG0634 [abstract]. In: 2012 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting; November 9-14, 2012; Washington, D.C.

  17. Westhovens R, Taylor PC, Alten R, et al. Filgotinib (GLPG0634/GS-6034), an oral JAK1 selective inhibitor, is effective in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and insufficient response to MTX: results from a randomised, dose-finding study (DARWIN 1)Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76(6):998-1008. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210104

  18. Genovese M, Westhovens R, Meuleners L, et al. Effect of filgotinib, a selective JAK 1 inhibitor, with and without methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: patient-reported outcomesArthritis Res Ther. 2018;20(1):57. Published 2018 Mar 23. doi:10.1186/s13075-018-1541-z

  19. Genovese MC, Kalunian K, Gottenberg JE, et al. Effect of filgotinib vs placebo on clinical response in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis refractory to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy: The FINCH 2 randomized clinical trial [published correction appears in JAMA. 2020 Feb 4;323(5):480]. JAMA. 2019;322(4):315-325. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.9055

  20. Westhovens R, Rigby W, Van der Heijde D, et al. Efficacy and safety of filgotinib in methotrexate-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Finch 3 52-week results. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(1):1015.

  21. Song GG, Lee YH. Comparative efficacy and safety of 100 mg and 200 mg filgotinib administered to patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020;58(6):293-298. doi:10.5414/CP203635

  22. Orbai AM, Ogdie A, Gossec L, et al. Effect of filgotinib on health-related quality of life in active psoriatic arthritis: a randomized phase 2 trial (EQUATOR)Rheumatology (Oxford). 2020;59(7):1495-1504. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kez408

  23. Vermeire S, Schreiber S, Petryka R, et al. Clinical remission in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease treated with filgotinib (the FITZROY study): results from a phase 2, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trialLancet. 2017;389(10066):266-275. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32537-5

  24. Yeh YJ, Jenike KM, Calvi RM, et al. Filgotinib suppresses HIV-1-driven gene transcription by inhibiting HIV-1 splicing and T cell activation [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 23]. J Clin Invest. 2020;137371. doi:10.1172/JCI137371

  25. Qiu Q, Feng Q, Tan X, Guo M. JAK3-selective inhibitor peficitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritisExpert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019;12(6):547‐554. doi:10.1080/17512433.2019.1615443

  26. Takeuchi T, Tanaka Y, Tanaka S, et al. Efficacy and safety of peficitinib (ASP015K) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate: results of a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RAJ4) in JapanAnn Rheum Dis. 2019;78(10):1305‐1319. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215164

  27. Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T, Tanaka S, et al. Efficacy and safety of peficitinib (ASP015K) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial (RAJ3)Ann Rheum Dis. 2019;78(10):1320‐1332. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215163

  28. Encinar JA, Menendez JA. Potential drugs targeting early innate immune evasion of SARS-coronavirus 2 via 2'-O-Methylation of viral RNAViruses. 2020;12(5):525. Published 2020 May 10. doi:10.3390/v12050525

  29. Schmieder GJ, Draelos ZD, Pariser DM, et al. Efficacy and safety of the Janus kinase 1 inhibitor PF-04965842 in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis: phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyBr J Dermatol. 2018;179(1):54-62. doi:10.1111/bjd.16004

  30. Simpson EL, Sinclair R, Forman S, et al. Efficacy and safety of abrocitinib in adults and adolescents with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (JADE MONO-1): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trialLancet. 2020;396(10246):255-266. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30732-7

  31. Montilla AM, Gómez-García F, Gómez-Arias PJ, et al. Scoping review on the use of drugs targeting JAK/STAT pathway in atopic dermatitis  vitiligo, and alopecia areataDermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2019;9(4):655-683. doi:10.1007/s13555-019-00329-y

  32. Vazquez ML, Kaila N, Strohbach JW, et al. Identification of N-{cis-3-[Methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino]cyclobutyl}propane-1-sulfonamide (PF-04965842): A Selective JAK1 Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Autoimmune DiseasesJ Med Chem. 2018;61(3):1130-1152. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01598

  33. Adis Insight. Abrocitinib - Pfizer. Updated July 15, 2020.

  34. Schmieder GJ, Draelos ZD, Pariser DM, et al. Efficacy and safety of the Janus kinase 1 inhibitor PF-04965842 in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis: phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Dermatol. 2018 Jul;179(1):54-62. doi:10.1111/bjd.16004 

  35. Banfield C, Scaramozza M, Zhang W, et al. The Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of a TYK2/JAK1 Inhibitor (PF-06700841) in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Plaque PsoriasisJ Clin Pharmacol. 2018;58(4):434-447. doi:10.1002/jcph.1046

  36. Adis Insight. SHR 0302. Updated July 15, 2020.

  37. Cision PR Newswire. Reistone announces first patient dosed in two phase II global studies of SHR0302 JAK inhibitor for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Published June 14, 2019.

  38. National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine: A study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SHR0302 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Updated April 3, 2020.

  39. Yang AY, Liu JQ, Cai YN, et al. The anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of JAK1 inhibitor SHR0302 versus ruxolitinib in SET2 cell line and primary cells. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2019;40(12):1003-1007. Abstract referenced; article in Chinese. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2019.12.006

  40. Gu YJ, Sun WY, Zhang S, Li XR, Wei W. Targeted blockade of JAK/STAT3 signaling inhibits proliferation, migration and collagen production as well as inducing the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cellsInt J Mol Med. 2016;38(3):903-911. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2016.2692

  41. Wu H, Yan S, Chen J, et al. JAK1-STAT3 blockade by JAK inhibitor SHR0302 attenuates inflammatory responses of adjuvant-induced arthritis rats and decreases Th17 and total B cellsJoint Bone Spine. 2016;83(5):525-532. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2015.09.002

  42. Adis Insight. BMS 986165. Updated July 21, 2020.

  43. Papp K, Gordon K, Thaçi D, et al. Phase 2 trial of selective tyrosine kinase 2 inhibition in psoriasisN Engl J Med. 2018;379(14):1313-1321. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1806382

  44. Wrobleski ST, Moslin R, Lin S, et al. Highly selective inhibition of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases: Discovery of the allosteric inhibitor BMS-986165J Med Chem. 2019;62(20):8973-8995. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00444

  45. Evangelatos G, Koulouri V, Iliopoulos A, Fragoulis GE. Tuberculosis and targeted synthetic or biologic DMARDs, beyond tumor necrosis factor inhibitorsTher Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2020;12:1759720X20930116. Published 2020 Jun 22. doi:10.1177/1759720X20930116

  46. Sunzini F, McInnes I, Siebert S. JAK inhibitors and infections risk: focus on herpes zosterTher Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2020;12:1759720X20936059. Published 2020 Jun 29. doi:10.1177/1759720X20936059

  47. Rajasimhan S, Pamuk O, Katz JD. Safety of janus kinase inhibitors in older patients: A focus on the thromboembolic risk. Drugs Aging. 2020 Aug;37(8):551-558. doi: 10.1007/s40266-020-00775-w. PMID: 32514874; PMCID: PMC7387323.

  48. Food and Drug Administration. FDA requires warnings about increased risk of serious heart-related events, cancer, blood clots, and death for JAK inhibitors that treat certain chronic inflammatory conditions. Published September 16, 2021.