Symptoms and Treatment of Kikuchi Disease

Kikuchi disease, also called histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis or Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, is a disease that affects the lymph nodes, causing lymph node inflammation. The exact cause of the disease is not yet known, although some researchers have suggested it is an infection or autoimmune disorder.

The most widely accepted theory by experts is that Kikuchi disease is the result of one or more unidentified agents triggering a self-limited autoimmune process. These agents are thought to include infections, chemical, plastic, and neoplastic (abnormal tissue growth) agents.

Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis
Nephron / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0

Who's at Risk?

Kikuchi disease was first described in Japan in 1972 but has since been reported throughout the world in all races. It was previously thought that more women than men were affected by Kikuchi disease; however, more recent evidence suggests that it is not more likely to affect one sex more than another. Kikuchi disease occurs in a wide age range, but generally affects young adults ages 20 to 30.

Symptoms

Kikuchi disease usually takes the form of lymph node inflammation. In 80 percent of people with the disease, the lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck are affected. Most of the time, these are the only lymph nodes affected. About half of people with Kikuchi disease develop a fever and flu-like symptoms. A red rash may appear in up to 30 percent of individuals.

The lymph nodes can be tender and painful around 2-3 cm in diameter.

Diagnosis

An ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can confirm the presence of enlarged lymph nodes but cannot confirm the diagnosis.Because of its symptoms and because it is so difficult to diagnose, Kikuchi disease is often mistaken for lymphoma or systemic lupus erythematosus. The only way to know for sure if your symptoms are from Kikuchi disease is for your healthcare provider to remove a lymph node and examine the tissues in it. Luckily, unlike lymphoma and lupus, Kikuchi disease is not life-threatening or chronic in nature.

Treatment Options

Treatment for Kikuchi disease consists of relieving any fever, flu symptoms, or lymph node tenderness. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can help with these symptoms. Kikuchi disease will usually clear up on its own within one to four months.

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