Symptoms and Treatment of Kikuchi Disease

Kikuchi disease, also called histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis or Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, is a disease that affects the lymph nodes, causing lymph node inflammation. The exact cause of the disease is not yet known, although some researchers have suggested it is an infection or autoimmune disorder.

The most widely accepted theory by experts is that Kikuchi disease is the result of one or more unidentified agents triggering a self-limited autoimmune process. These agents are thought to include infections, chemical, plastic, and neoplastic (abnormal tissue growth) agents.

Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis
Nephron / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0

Who's at Risk?

Kikuchi disease was first described in Japan in 1972 but has since been reported throughout the world in all races. It was previously thought that more women than men were affected by Kikuchi disease; however, more recent evidence suggests that it is not more likely to affect one sex more than another. Kikuchi disease occurs in a wide age range, but generally affects young adults ages 20 to 30.


Kikuchi disease usually takes the form of lymph node inflammation. In 80 percent of people with the disease, the lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck are affected. Most of the time, these are the only lymph nodes affected. About half of people with Kikuchi disease develop a fever and flu-like symptoms. A red rash may appear in up to 30 percent of individuals.

The lymph nodes can be tender and painful around 2-3 cm in diameter.


An ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can confirm the presence of enlarged lymph nodes but cannot confirm the diagnosis.Because of its symptoms and because it is so difficult to diagnose, Kikuchi disease is often mistaken for lymphoma or systemic lupus erythematosus. The only way to know for sure if your symptoms are from Kikuchi disease is for your healthcare provider to remove a lymph node and examine the tissues in it. Luckily, unlike lymphoma and lupus, Kikuchi disease is not life-threatening or chronic in nature.

Treatment Options

Treatment for Kikuchi disease consists of relieving any fever, flu symptoms, or lymph node tenderness. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can help with these symptoms. Kikuchi disease will usually clear up on its own within one to four months.

10 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Perry AM, Choi SM. Kikuchi-fujimoto disease: a review. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 2018;142(11):1341-1346. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2018-0219-RA

  2. Susheelan V, Thambi R, Mathew S. Kikuchi′s disease: A study of 96 cases over a 12-year period. Saudi J Health Sci. 2016;5(3):134. doi: 10.4103/2278-0521.195818

  3. Lamzaf L, Harmouche H, Maamar M, Adnaoui M, Aouni M, Tazi Mezalek Z. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: Report of 4 cases and review of the literature. European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases. 2014;131(6):329-332. doi: 10.1016/j.anorl.2013.01.007

  4. National Center for Advancing Transational Sciences. Kikuchi disease.

  5. Lelii M, Senatore L, Amodeo I, et al. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease in children: two case reports and a review of the literature. Ital J Pediatr. 2018;44(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0522-9

  6. Cui XW, Jenssen C, Saftoiu A, Ignee A, Dietrich CF. New ultrasound techniques for lymph node evaluation. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013;19(30):4850-4860. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i30.4850

  7. Găman M, Vlădăreanu AM, Dobrea C, et al. A challenging case of kikuchi-fujimoto disease associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and review of the literature. Case Reports in Hematology. 2018;2018:1-5. doi: 10.1155/2018/1791627

  8. Al Manasra AR, Al-Domaidat H, Aideh MA, et al. Kikuchi–fujimoto disease in the eastern mediterranean zone. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):2703. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-06757-9

  9. Honda F, Tsuboi H, Toko H, et al. Recurrent kikuchi-fujimoto disease successfully treated by the concomitant use of hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids. Internal Medicine. 2017;56(24):3373-3377. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.9205-17

  10. Deaver DM, Naghashpour M, Sokol L. Kikuchi-fujimoto disease in the united states: three case reports and review of the literature. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. 2014;6(1):e2014001-e2014001. doi: 10.4084/MJHID.2014.001

By Mary Kugler, RN
Mary Kugler, RN, is a pediatric nurse whose specialty is caring for children with long-term or severe medical problems.