Leukemia: Signs, Symptoms, and Complications

These Blood-Related Cancers Can Occur in People of All Ages

Leukemia symptoms may be very subtle, with fatigue, unintentional weight loss, excessive bleeding (such as frequent nosebleeds), and frequent infections, to name a few symptoms.

These symptoms may be due to a wide range of causes, but taken together they may point to one of the types of leukemia, a group of blood-related cancers that affect people of all ages. The symptoms may suggest that further evaluation is needed to arrive at any diagnosis.

This article discusses leukemia symptoms in kids as well as adults. It presents some types of leukemia and how they are diagnosed, along with information about when it may be necessary to see a healthcare provider.

leukemia symptoms
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Frequent Leukemia Symptoms

The symptoms of leukemia in adults and children are similar. The most common symptoms are:

  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Unexplained fevers
  • Night sweats
  • Bruising and excess bleeding
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bone and joint pain
  • Headaches and other neurological symptoms
  • Unintentional weight loss

Because many of these symptoms are vague and nonspecific, people tend to explain them away, saying that they feel like they are catching a cold or they’ve been feeling run down lately. 

What Are Leukemia Symptoms in Kids?

Leukemia symptoms can be difficult to detect in young children who may only communicate by crying. Other signs may be a lack of appetite, the refusal to eat, or a limp due to a bone or joint pain.

Some of the symptoms are easier to understand in the context of the effect leukemia has on specific blood cells produced by the bone marrow, since many of the signs are related to either an excess or deficiency of these cells.

Leukemia affects white blood cells, but also frequently affects other cells produced by the bone marrow by interfering with their production or crowding out the bone marrow. Cells manufactured by the bone marrow include:

  • Red blood cells (RBCs): Red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues of the body. A low red blood cell count is referred to as anemia.
  • White blood cells (WBCs): WBCs fight off infections due to organisms such as bacteria and viruses. A low WBC count is referred to as leukopenia. One type of WBC, neutrophils, are particularly important in fighting off the bacteria that cause infections such as pneumonia. A deficiency of neutrophils is referred to as neutropenia.
  • Platelets: Platelets or thrombocytes are the cells produced by the bone marrow that are responsible for blood clotting. A low platelet count is referred to as thrombocytopenia.


Excessive tiredness is a very common symptom of leukemia. Though there are many causes of fatigue, cancer fatigue tends to be more dramatic than the ordinary tiredness people feel when they lack sleep. The kind of fatigue associated with cancer often doesn't improve with a good night of rest and interferes with normal daily activities.

Cancer can cause fatigue in different ways. Leukemia-associated anemia depletes cells and tissues of oxygen, causing shortness of breath and weakness. Cancer can also decrease the production of serotonin and tryptophan key to physical and mental function.

Frequent Infections

Even when present in normal or increased numbers, cancerous white blood cells (leukemia) may not be able to adequately help your body fight off infection. In addition, the leukemia cells can crowd out other types of white blood cells in the bone marrow, preventing the body from ensuring an adequate supply.

As a result, people affected by leukemia are often very prone to developing infections. Common sites of infection include the mouth and throat, skin, lungs, urinary tract or bladder, and the area around the anus.

Enlarged Lymph Nodes

Sometimes, leukemia cells can accumulate in the lymph nodes and cause them to become swollen and tender. People may be able to feel abnormally enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) in the armpit (axillary lymph nodes), neck (cervical lymph nodes), or groin.

Lymph nodes that can't be directly palpated can also cause symptoms as well. For example, enlarged lymph nodes in the chest (such as mediastinal lymph nodes) cannot be felt but may lead to shortness of breath, wheezing, or a cough.

Bruising or Excessive Bleeding

When leukemia cells crowd the bone marrow, it can result in a decreased production of platelets, known as thrombocytopenia. Platelets are actually fragments of cells that clump together to slow or stop bleeding when an injury occurs to a blood vessel.

Leukemia-associated thrombocytopenia can take many forms, including easy bruising, red spots on the skin (petechiae or purpura), heavy periods, nosebleeds, bleeding gums, hematuria (blood in urine), and hematochezia (blood in stools).

Unexplained Fevers

Fevers without an obvious source, such as infection, can be a symptom of any cancer, but especially blood-related cancers such as leukemia. A fever of unknown origin is defined as a fever of greater than 101 degrees that occurs frequently or lasts for more than three weeks with no obvious explanation.

Fevers associated with leukemia can have a number of possible causes, including underlying infections. In some cases, leukemia cells themselves can cause the body to release chemicals that stimulate the brain to raise body temperature.

Night Sweats

Night sweats can be a symptom of cancer, especially blood-related cancers like leukemia. Unlike the common hot flashes or sweating associated with menopause, night sweats related to leukemia are often dramatic.

Night sweats are typically described as "drenching," soaking through clothing and bedding to the mattress below. While they are common at night, night sweats can also occur during the day and are never considered normal.

Abdominal Pain

Abnormal white blood cells may collect in the liver and spleen, causing your abdomen to swell and become uncomfortable. This type of swelling can also decrease your appetite or make you feel full early in a meal. Involvement of the spleen often causes pain in the left upper abdomen, whereas liver involvement often causes pain in the right upper abdomen.

Bone and Joint Pain

Bone and joint pain are most common in areas where there is a large amount of bone marrow, such as the pelvis (hips) or breastbone (sternum). This is caused by the crowding of the marrow with excessive numbers of abnormal white blood cells. In children, parents may notice that a child is limping or not walking normally without any form of injury to explain the symptom.

Headaches and Other Neurological Symptoms

Headaches and other neurologic symptoms such as seizures, dizziness, visual changes, nausea, and vomiting may occur when leukemia cells invade the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid).

Unintentional Weight Loss

Unexplained weight loss is a classic sign of all cancers and is generally suggestive of a more advanced malignancy. In some cases, persistent fatigue and unintended weight loss are the symptoms that compel some people to seek a diagnosis.

Unexplained weight loss is defined as the loss of 5% or more of your body weight over a span of six to 12 months. The symptom is more common with chronic leukemias than acute leukemias.

Leukemia Symptoms By Type

While the symptoms above may be found with nearly any type of leukemia, there are some symptoms that are more common with different types of the disease.

Acute leukemias are characterized by immature white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to a more visible array of symptoms. With chronic leukemias, the cells may function to a degree and, as such, may have less obvious symptoms.

Symptoms related to the different subtypes of leukemia include:

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

The symptoms of acute lymphocytic leukemia often develop rapidly over the course of days or a few weeks. If ALL spreads to the central nervous system, symptoms such as headaches, blurry vision, dizziness, and sometimes seizures may occur. When ALL spreads to the chest, shortness of breath, and a cough may occur.

With T-cell ALL, enlargement of the thymus gland, which lies behind the breastbone and in front of the trachea, may compress the trachea and lead to difficulty breathing.

Compression of the large vein returning blood from the upper body to the heart (the superior vena cava) may cause symptoms referred to as superior vena cava syndrome. This can include marked swelling of the face, neck, upper arms, and upper chest.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

The first symptom of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is often enlarged, painless lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, and groin. Other symptoms may come on very gradually and can include what is known as the "B symptoms," including fevers, chills, night sweats, and weight loss.

In around 5% of CLL diagnoses, the disease will transform into an aggressive lymphoma, known as Richter syndrome, characterized by widespread lymphadenopathy.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia, like ALL, often comes on rapidly with the symptoms discussed above. AML is somewhat unique in that the immature white blood cells (blast cells) can clog blood vessels, something called leukostasis. This can result in symptoms similar to a stroke with visual changes or weakness of one side of the body.

Greenish-tinged rashes called chloromas may occur due to the spread of AML cells under the skin. A condition called Sweet's syndrome may also occur. This is characterized by recurrent fevers and a build-up of white blood cells in the dermal layer of the skin, resulting in painful skin lesions scattered on the head, arms, neck, and chest.

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Acute promyelocytic leukemia accounts for around 10% of AML cases and is distinctive in that the most prominent symptoms usually involve both excessive bleeding and excessive blood clotting.

This may include nosebleeds, heavy periods, and bruising, but also leg and calf pain and swelling (due to deep vein thrombosis) and the sudden onset of chest pain and shortness of breath that can accompany pulmonary emboli (blood clots that break off in the legs and travel to the lungs).

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

Chronic myeloid leukemia is most often suspected before any symptoms are present when the results of a complete blood count (CBC) are abnormal. Even after diagnosis, people with CML may have few if any symptoms for months or years before the leukemia cells begin to grow more quickly and make themselves known.

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia often affects many parts of the body, not just the bone marrow. Collections of monocytes in the spleen lead to enlargement (splenomegaly) which can cause pain in the left upper abdomen and fullness with eating.

Collections of monocytes can cause enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly) resulting in pain in the right upper abdomen as well.


There are many possible complications of leukemia, several of which are related to deficiency of the different types of white blood cells. A few of the more common concerns include:

Severe Infections

A reduced level of white blood cells reduces the body's ability to fight infections, and even relatively minor infections may become life-threatening.

Infections such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections can rapidly progress to sepsis and septic shock (a widespread infection often accompanied by a drop in blood pressure and reduced level of consciousness).

During leukemia treatment, the suppression of the immune system can allow certain microorganisms to thrive and become life-threatening, including the chickenpox virus (herpes zoster), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Aspergillus.

Serious Bleeding

While bleeding is common when the platelet count is low, bleeding in certain regions of the body can be life-threatening. Such instances include:

  • Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding into the brain can result in the rapid onset of confusion or unconsciousness.
  • Pulmonary hemorrhage: Bleeding in the lungs may result in severe shortness of breath and coughing up blood.
  • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: Bleeding into the stomach and/or intestines can result in vomiting large amounts of blood and a rapid drop in blood pressure.

What Are the Risk Factors for Leukemia?

Six of the most common risk factors for leukemia are:

  • A family history of leukemia
  • Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and Fanconi anemia
  • Prior radiation therapy
  • Prior chemotherapy, especially alkylating agents and topoisomerase inhibitors
  • Exposure to industrial chemicals, such as benzene
  • Smoking, which is particularly a risk for acute AML

When to See a Doctor

It's important to see a doctor if you develop any of the symptoms above, or if you are just not feeling right. Trust your intuition. Because many leukemia symptoms are nonspecific, they could be indications of another serious condition as well.

Some symptoms, such as new-onset severe headaches, other neurological symptoms, or drenching night sweats, should be addressed right away.

Others, such as swollen lymph nodes in the neck, should be evaluated if they persist—even if you think there is a logical explanation. Since acute lymphocytic leukemia often lacks symptoms early on, seeing a physician for a regular physical and blood tests is also important.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What causes leukemia?

    Leukemia is caused by multiple genetic mutations that lead to uncontrolled cell growth in the bone marrow. As a result, malignant blood cells crowd out healthy cells and lead to the signs and symptoms of leukemia. The exact reason for why this happens is unknown.

  • How is leukemia diagnosed?

    A complete blood count (CBC) shows changes in blood cells, and a physical exam will reveal anemia, enlarged lymph nodes, and a swollen liver or spleen. A bone marrow biopsy is needed to view the tissues under the microscope and definitively diagnose leukemia.

  • Can leukemia be cured?

    There is currently no cure for leukemia, but treatments including newer immunotherapies and CAR-T cell therapy can keep the disease in remission and prevent it from coming back. For example, nearly 90% of adults living with ALL achieve long-term, disease-free remission.

  • Can you prevent leukemia?

    There is no guaranteed way to prevent leukemia, but avoiding smoking and exposure to industrial benzene may help. Knowing your leukemia risk factors will help you to respond quickly if early signs and symptoms develop.

  • What can be mistaken for leukemia?

    Leukemia symptoms are similar to those of many conditions. Trouble breathing may also be asthma or a heart condition; weight loss may be a symptom of gallbladder disease or colorectal cancer. See your healthcare provider for a diagnosis if you have concerns.

Leukemia Doctor Discussion Guide

Get our printable guide for your next doctor's appointment to help you ask the right questions.

Doctor Discussion Guide Man
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Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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Additional Reading
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leukemia.

By Karen Raymaakers
Karen Raymaakers RN, CON(C) is a certified oncology nurse that has worked with leukemia and lymphoma patients for over a decade.