Why Celiac Disease Significantly Raises Your Risk for Lymphoma

A loaf of sliced gluten-free bread on a floured table

 Stefka Pavlova/Getty Images

If you have celiac disease, you also likely have a higher-than-normal risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

This may seem frightening, and it's certainly something that you should take seriously–and probably discuss with your healthcare provider. But a closer look at the numbers indicates that your overall risk of getting lymphoma, while higher than average, is still pretty small ... and you may be able to mitigate that risk further by following a strict gluten-free diet.

If you have non-celiac gluten sensitivity, at least one study has shown that you, too, may have a higher risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the evidence is far less clear for those with gluten sensitivity. 

A loaf of sliced bread on a floured table
 Stefka Pavlova / Getty Images

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is cancer involving the lymphatic system, which includes components of your immune system such as your lymph nodes and spleen. About one in 50 people—or 2 percent—will develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma during their lifetimes.

It's not clear exactly how many people with celiac disease will develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma over their lifetimes. One study—which looked at the incidence of lymphoma and similar disorders at the Columbia University Celiac Disease Center—found 40 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma out of 1,285 celiac patients seen at the center between 1981 and 2010, for a rate of 3.1 percent.

Interestingly, researchers have also found an elevated risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in non-celiac siblings of diagnosed celiacs. This indicates there may be some genes that raise the risk both for celiac disease and for lymphoma.

EATL Lymphoma Closely Linked to Celiac Disease

People who've been diagnosed with celiac disease appear to be at a higher risk for all types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (there are more than 30 types). But the risk of one particular type—enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, or EATL, that begins in the small intestine—is specifically associated with celiac disease.

EATL is a very rare cancer—fewer than one person per million people in Western countries develop EATL each year. By definition, EATL develops in patients with celiac disease, although sometimes it's diagnosed at the same time or even before the person is diagnosed with celiac.

Sadly, the outlook for this type of cancer is poor. A review of studies notes that the biggest studies reported death rates of approximately 80-84%, with overall survival of 7.1-10.0 months. However, newer treatment regimens may increase survival.

Incidence of EATL in the U.S. appears to be increasing, according to a 2012 study in the journal Cancer. The authors said this may reflect the increasing prevalence of celiac disease and better recognition of rare types of T-cell lymphomas.

Older Celiac Lymphoma Patients Exhibit More 'Traditional' Symptoms

Lymphoma in people with celiac disease typically develops in the five to 10 years following the celiac diagnosis, although healthcare providers have recorded cases of a 60-year time lapse between the two diagnoses.

It's common for those with celiac disease who ultimately are diagnosed with lymphoma to experience a relapse of their condition with a recurrence of celiac disease symptoms (even if their symptoms had been well under control previously). However, some people experience a progressive deterioration, are diagnosed with refractory celiac disease, and then develop lymphoma.

Studies show that celiac disease patients who develop disorders of the lymphatic system, including lymphoma, tend to be older at the time of their celiac disease diagnosis, and are more likely to suffer from symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss (symptoms indicating severe villous atrophy and malabsorption) than other celiacs.

Can Eating Gluten-Free Help Reduce Your Lymphoma Risk?

Although not all studies agree, some medical research seems to indicate that adhering to a strict gluten-free diet can reduce your risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other types of cancer. It appears to matter how long you ate gluten prior to your celiac diagnosis and how long you stay off it following diagnosis.

In addition, if you ever develop any symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (which can include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, fever and night sweats), you should talk to your healthcare provider immediately, and make sure she knows the connection between lymphoma and celiac disease.

5 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Leslie LA et al. Incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with celiac disease. American Journal of Hematology. 2012 Aug;87(8):754-9. doi:10.1002/ajh.23237

  2. Emilsson L, Murray JA, Leffler DA, Ludvigsson JF. Cancer in first-degree relatives of people with celiac diseaseMedicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(32):e4588. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004588

  3. Sharaiha RZ, Lebwohl B, Reimers L, Bhagat G, Green PH, Neugut AI. Increasing incidence of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2008Cancer. 2012;118(15):3786–3792. doi:10.1002/cncr.26700

  4. Sieniawski MK, Lennard AL. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma: Epidemiology, clinical features, and current treatment strategies. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2011;6(4):231-40. doi:10.1007/s11899-011-0097-7

  5. Giuffrida P, Vanoli A, Arpa G, et al. Small bowel carcinomas associated with immune-mediated intestinal disorders: The current knowledgeCancers (Basel). 2018;11(1):31. doi:10.3390/cancers11010031

Additional Reading

By Jane Anderson
Jane Anderson is a medical journalist and an expert in celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, and the gluten-free diet.