Symptoms of Macular Degeneration

macular degeneration (AMD) symptoms
 © Verywell, 2018

Not everyone experiences the same symptoms of macular degeneration. Some people experience less severe symptoms and slower loss of vision compared to others. Although it is possible to retain close to normal vision for years despite having macular degeneration, the eye disease is considered progressive and usually gets worse with time.

Most symptoms do not cause any pain. Because the risk for eye problems, including AMD, increases after the age of 40, it’s important to have a comprehensive dilated eye exam every year.

Quiet Symptoms

Vision loss in early cases of macular degeneration is so gradual that most people do not even notice it. As the disease progresses, there may be a profound loss or graying of central vision, while peripheral vision remains unchanged the same.

Your doctor may detect the presence of macular degeneration before you develop noticeable symptoms of the disease. In its early stages, your doctor may detect drusen or waste deposits on the surface of your retina. Sometimes a color change may occur within the macula.

Early Symptoms

Vision loss in most cases of macular degeneration is gradual. In fact, most people do not notice any symptoms until the disease has progressed significantly.

At first, images that usually appear clear and sharp often become blurred. As the disease progresses they can become distorted, enlarged, cloudy, dark or spotted. You may experience:

  • Visual distortions (straight lines seem bent)
  • Reduced central vision in one or both eyes
  • A need for brighter light when reading or doing near work
  • Difficulty adapting to low light levels, such as when entering a dimly lit room
  • Blurriness of printed words
  • Decreased intensity or brightness of colors
  • Difficulty recognizing faces

Advanced Symptoms

As symptoms progress, vision may become worse, possibly affecting your ability to do things such as read, drive and recognize faces. Symptoms may include several large drusen, and sometimes a blurred spot in the center of your vision. The blurred spot may continue to get bigger and darker. Detailed tasks such as reading and writing will become more difficult. In some cases of advanced macular degeneration, vision can be completely lost over time and permanent blindness can occur.

Types of AMD

AMD is divided into two types, "dry" and "wet," with the dry form making up 90 percent of cases.

  • Dry AMD: Parts of the macula get thinner with age and tiny clumps of protein made of lipids called drusen grow. Central vision is lost slowly. Dry macular degermation is also referred to as non-exudative macular degeneration.
  • Wet AMD: New, abnormal blood vessels grow underneath the retina. These vessels may leak blood or other fluids, causing scarring of the macula. Vision loss is much more aggressive. Wet macular degeneration is referred to as non-exudative macular degeneration.

When to See a Doctor

If you have a family history of macular degeneration, especially with significant vision loss, it is highly recommended to schedule annual medical eye examinations. It is important to note that you should be having a comprehensive examination with dilation of the pupil, and not a simple vision screening performed by your primary care doctor. These examinations can be performed by an optometrist or ophthalmologist.

Also, smoking and having cardiovascular disease increase your risk for developing the disease. If you have either of these conditions, make sure you put an eye exam on your schedule every year.

Since macular degeneration can progress quickly in some cases, call your eye doctor immediately if you notice any of the following changes:

  • You have sudden, rapid loss of vision.
  • You notice a new blank or dark spot in the center of your vision.
  • Straight lines appear wavy or curved, or objects begin to change size or shape or appear distorted.
  • You see either of the following on an Amsler grid: lines that change or appear wavy and curved, or blank spot that you have not noticed before in the grid.

Certain forms of macular degeneration can progress very quickly but can respond to treatment if caught in time. See your eye doctor if you notice any of the following:

  • Changes in your central vision
  • A decrease in your ability to see colors and fine detail

These changes may be the first indication of macular degeneration, especially if you're over the age of 50. Macular degeneration almost always affects both eyes, but it can be much worse in one eye. It is important when checking your vision at home to check each eye independently. Cover one eye and check the other eye and then alternate. If you check often, it will be easier to notice subtle changes.

View Article Sources
  • Boyd, Kierstan. "What Is Macular Degeneration?" American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). 1 Mar 2017.