What to Know About Multiple Sclerosis and COVID-19

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when a person's immune system misguidedly attacks the protective covering of nerve cells in their brain, spinal cord, or eyes.

While ongoing research suggests that simply having MS does not increase your risk of becoming infected with the coronavirus leading to COVID-19, certain individual factors—like taking steroids for an MS relapse or having progressive MS, for example—may increase your chances of getting a severe case if you do develop COVID-19.

To optimize the health and safety of those living with MS, experts are encouraging patients to get the COVID-19 vaccine as soon as possible. Experts also recommend that patients with MS continue taking their disease-modifying therapy (DMT) as usual unless instructed otherwise by their healthcare provider.

Managing Your MS During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Luis Alvarez / Getty Images

MS and COVID-19 Risk

Current evidence shows that having MS does not increase your risk of becoming infected with the coronavirus that leads to COVID-19. That said, some patients with MS seem to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill if they do come down with COVID-19. These groups of patients include:

  • Those with primary or secondary progressive MS
  • Those with MS who are over the age of 60
  • Men with MS
  • Black people with MS and, possibly, South Asian people with MS
  • Those with higher levels of MS-related disability (for example, a person who has difficulty walking without the use of a mobility assistive device or one who has an expanded disability status scale score, or EDSS score, of 6 or higher)
  • Those with MS who are obese
  • Those with MS who smoke or have diabetes, heart disease, or hypertension
  • Those who recently took steroids or who are taking certain MS disease-modifying medications (see more below)

There are also people living with MS who are more likely to become exposed to the coronavirus, including:

  • Patients living with advanced MS in a long-term care facility, especially a facility with a large number of beds and high occupancy rates
  • People receiving an intravenous (through your vein) MS disease-modifying medication at a hospital or infusion center
  • Those who require periodic laboratory monitoring (e.g., a monthly test to check the levels of white blood cells in their bloodstream)

Complications of MS and COVID-19

In addition to the fact that certain MS populations are more likely to develop a severe COVID-19 course (including being hospitalized, placed on a ventilator, and/or dying), there are other unique challenges to consider regarding having MS and developing COVID-19.

For one, contracting a viral infection like the coronavirus can trigger an MS relapse, or exacerbation. In this instance, besides the symptoms of COVID-19 (e.g., fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath), a person may experience new neurological symptoms or worsening of their existing ones.

Common symptoms that may occur during an MS exacerbation include:

Infection with the coronavirus (and other viruses) may trigger a pseudoexacerbation, or false exacerbation, especially if a fever is present.

With a pseudoexacerbation, a person may experience a temporary worsening of their MS symptoms, even though there is no damage or inflammation occurring within their central nervous system. Pseudoexacerbations generally improve within 24 hours of the illness and/or fever resolving.

One case study suggests that infection with COVID-19 may increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis or unmask this underlying neurological disease.

Finally, while there is no direct evidence linking MS and being a COVID-19 "long hauler" (someone who experiences long-term effects), it may be hard to delineate between the two, as they share common symptoms. Shared symptoms of COVID-19 long-haulers and people with MS include:

  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Dizziness
  • Depression
  • Anxiety

MS Treatments and COVID-19

The vast majority of patients diagnosed with MS take a disease-modifying therapy (DMT).

What Is Disease-Modifying Therapy?

DMTs are oral, injected, or intravenous drugs that reduce disease activity and delay the progression or worsening of MS-related disability.

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients have understandably questioned whether taking their DMT negatively impacts their risk of getting coronavirus (and developing a severe case of COVID-19, if they do get it).

The DMT dilemma—mainly whether to temporarily stop taking the drug during the pandemic—stems from the fact that DMTs generally work by suppressing a person's overactive immune system. Therefore, taking a DMT may theoretically affect a person's ability to fight the coronavirus effectively and robustly.

That said, stopping or delaying treatment with a DMT carries its own risks, specifically by increasing a person's chances of having an MS relapse and/or speeding up the progression of their disease.

There is also the paradoxical thought process that certain DMTs may actually have a protective effect against COVID-19 by altering the hyperactive inflammatory response associated with severe cases of COVID-19.

What the Experts Say

Experts from the National MS Society recommend that patients continue taking their current DMT unless instructed otherwise by their healthcare provider. Moreover, all patients should carefully review with their own neurologist all of the potential risks and benefits of taking their DMT during the COVID-19 pandemic.

For certain DMTs, your practitioner may recommend specific strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, some DMTs lower your absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). If your ALC gets too low (a sign that your immune system is very suppressed), you may be more susceptible to a coronavirus infection.

As a result, your healthcare provider may ask you to get a periodic ALC blood test if you are taking one of these DMTs:

  • Fumarate drug: Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate), Vumerity (diroximel fumarate), and Bafiertam (monomethyl fumarate)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) modulator: Gilyena (fingolimod), Mayzent (siponimod), and Zeposia (ozanimod)

Likewise, the intravenous DMTs that deplete B cells—Ocrevus (ocrelizumab) or Rituxan (rituximab)—may be linked to an increased risk for being hospitalized if you have COVID-19. They are also linked to an increased reinfection risk.

If you are taking Ocrevus, your healthcare provider may recommend prolonging your dosing interval, especially if you have other risk factors for being exposed to or infected with COVID-19 (e.g., older age or have diabetes).

Protective Effect

Interestingly, interferon-β agents (Avonex, Betaseron, Extavia, Plegridy, and Rebif) may have a beneficial antiviral effect against COVID-19 when combined with traditional antiviral agents.

Specific Scenarios

It's also important to consider these specific scenarios when it comes to treating your MS.

Active COVID-19 Infection

If you develop symptoms of COVID-19 or test positive for the virus, it's important to contact your healthcare provider right away to review the next steps. With many DMTs, it's likely that you will be able to safely continue the drug, especially if you have no symptoms or only mild symptoms.

If your symptoms are moderate or severe, though, your practitioner may recommend skipping one or more doses. Likewise, your healthcare provider may ask for frequent check-ins (perhaps through telehealth visits) and/or blood tests to see how strong your immune system is.

Newly Diagnosed with MS

If you are newly diagnosed with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic, you can most likely start taking a DMT. That said, your neurologist will probably avoid certain ones like Lemtrada (alemtuzumab) and Mavenclad (cladribine), as they are stronger immunosuppressants.

MS Relapse

If you think you may be experiencing an MS exacerbation, contact your practitioner right away. They may ask to see you in person or through a telehealth visit.

While steroids are commonly used to treat MS relapses, taking high doses may increase your risk of having a severe COVID-19 reaction. If you do require steroids, your healthcare provider may have you isolate for at least a month to lower your chances of contracting the virus.

How to Stay Safe

To prevent yourself and others from developing COVID-19, it's important to engage in these habits (whether you have MS or not):

  • Frequently washing your hands
  • Wearing a mask or respirator
  • Staying up-to-date with your COVID-19 vaccines 
  • Staying home if you have suspected or confirmed COVID-19
  • Avoiding contact with people who have COVID-19

For high-risk patients with MS (e.g., older individuals with MS or those with underlying diabetes or heart disease), the National MS Society also recommends the following:

  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth unless your hands are clean.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or use the crook of your arm when coughing or sneezing.
  • Clean household/work surfaces frequently, especially those that are regularly touched (e.g., kitchen table or desk).
  • Utilize telehealth services, if possible, but do not avoid in-person visits if your healthcare provider deems them necessary for you to receive optimal care.
  • Engage in physical and pleasurable activities, especially those that are outside, and adhere to social distancing guidelines. These activities are essential to maintaining your mental and emotional health and well-being during this trying pandemic.
  • Get the seasonal flu vaccine.

Lastly, be sure to periodically review your treatment plan with your healthcare provider. In some cases, temporarily switching to a different DMT or delaying a dosing interval for an intravenous drug (to avoid unnecessary exposure) may be a reasonable strategy.

Caregivers and loved ones or regular visitors of high-risk MS patients should also adhere to the above safety precautions. This will help prevent bringing the coronavirus into the homes or living spaces of those with MS.

The information in this article is current as of the date listed. As new research becomes available, we’ll update this article. For the latest on COVID-19, visit our coronavirus news page.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Should I get a COVID-19 vaccine if I have MS?

    The National MS Society recommends that people with MS get vaccinated against COVID-19. Experts believe that the vaccines are unlikely to trigger an MS relapse or impact the progression of your disease in the long run.

    As you would with any medical decision, be sure to carefully discuss getting the COVID-19 vaccine with your personal healthcare provider.

  • Will the COVID-19 vaccine be effective if I'm taking a DMT?

    Scientific data has found that some DMTs may make the COVID-19 vaccine less effective (although you still will obtain some protection).

    These DMTs include:

    • Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators: Gilyena (fingolimod), Mayzent (siponimod), Zeposia (ozanimod), Ponvory (ponesimod)
    • Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies: Ocrevus (ocrelizumab), Kesimpta (ofatumumab), Rituxan (rituximab), and biosimilars

    If you are taking one of the above DMTs, your healthcare provider may coordinate the timing of your vaccine with the timing of your next DMT dose to optimize the effectiveness of the vaccine.

  • Is it safe to see my healthcare provider in person during COVID-19?

    Your practitioner may recommend telehealth visits for you during the pandemic to reduce your chances of being exposed to the coronavirus. In-person visits are generally reserved for people experiencing a significant change in their MS symptoms or for those who are newly diagnosed.

  • Is there ongoing research on the effects of COVID-19 on people with MS?

    Yes, research on the links between MS and COVID-19 is being actively pursued. In fact, the North American COVID-19 Infections in MS (COViMS) Registry was set up to determine the effect of COVID-19 on people with MS and other diseases affecting the central nervous system.

    The National MS Society is also partnering with the iConquerMS Patient-Powered Research Network to collect data on how well people with MS tolerate the COVID-19 vaccine.

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Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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By Colleen Doherty, MD
 Colleen Doherty, MD, is a board-certified internist living with multiple sclerosis.