What Should I Know About Oral Sex?

Oral sex is a sexual activity in which the mouth and tongue are used to give or receive sexual stimulation. Types of oral sex include fellatio (oral-penile sex, or a "blowjob"), cunnilingus (oral-vaginal sex), and anilingus (oral-anal sex, or "rimming").

Many people enjoy oral sex. It may be used as a prelude to sexual intercourse to arouse and lubricate the penis, vagina, or anus. Or, it may be used on its own as a satisfying sexual pleasure leading to orgasm.

This article looks at the different forms of oral sex that people engage in. It also explains some health risks associated with oral sex and ways to protect yourself and your partner when giving or receiving oral sex.

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Types of Oral Sex

Oral sex can take several forms. It involves a receptive partner (the person receiving oral sex) and the giving partner (sometimes called the insertive partner).

There are three types of oral sex:

  • Fellatio; Commonly referred to as a "blowjob," fellatio involves the stimulation of the penis and testicles with the mouth and tongue (oral-penile sex).
  • Cunnilingus: Sometimes described as "eating someone out," cunnilingus involves using the mouth and tongue to stimulate the vulva, clitoris, and vagina (oral-vaginal sex).
  • Anilingus: Also known as "rimming," anilingus involves the sexual stimulation of the anus with the mouth and tongue (oral-anal sex).

When sexual partners perform oral sex on each other simultaneously, the practice is commonly called "sixty-nining" or "doing 69."

Oral stimulation of other body parts, such as the breasts and nipples, is not generally considered oral sex, although it can occur during oral sex.

Potential Risks of Oral Sex

Some consider oral sex "safer" than sexual intercourse—but this is only partially correct. Pregnancy cannot occur with oral sex, and certain STDs like HIV are highly unlikely to be passed by oral sex.

But oral sex can place a person at risk of sexually transmitted diseases (like chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and HPV) and non-sexually transmitted diseases (like intestinal parasites and fecal-oral infections).

 Anilingus  Cunnilingus  Fellatio
Fecal-oral infections, like Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Intestinal parasites, like AmoebaGiardia, and Cryptosporidia    
Non-specific urethritis (NSU)

Some of these infections have long-term consequences.

For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is an STD closely linked to certain cancers. An oral HPV infection can cause cell changes, leading to some people's mouth or throat cancer.

If the virus is passed to the vagina, penis, or anus, it can increase the risk of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, or anal cancer.

Other Health Concerns

Oral sex poses other health concerns, particularly for genital or urinary tract infections (UTIs).

  • UTI: As a general rule, you should avoid oral sex when you or your partner has a UTI. This is especially true for female partners with a UTI due to the shorter length of their urethra (urinary tube). Oral sex can introduce new bacteria into the urethra and prolong or worsen the infection.
  • Yeast infection: There is little to no evidence that a yeast infection can be passed during sex. But it is also a good idea to avoid oral sex if either partner has a yeast infection because it can prolong the illness and aggravate symptoms. This includes not only vaginal yeast infections but also anal and penile yeast infections.
  • Cold sores: A cold sore—mainly caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)—can be passed to the penis, anus, or vagina during oral sex, leading to genital herpes. Although genital herpes is mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), an HSV-1 or HSV-2 outbreak on the genitals is indistinguishable.


Oral sex may be "safer" than condomless sexual intercourse, but it has risks.

It is essential, therefore, to find ways to reduce your risk, whether you are the receptive partner or the insertive/giving partner.

Short of complete sexual abstinence, this includes:

  • Consistent use of condoms: This includes both external (male) condoms and internal (female) condoms.
  • Dental dams: These thin squares of latex or polyurethane provide a barrier between the mouth and a partner's vagina or anus. If a dental dam is not available, a condom can be cut lengthwise and opened flat. Kitchen cling film can also be used.
  • Fewer sex partners: Few partners mean lower risk. For example, having ten or more sexual partners over a lifetime increases the risk of HPV-related cancers by 69% in males and 91% in females compared to having only one partner.
  • STD screenings: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the routine screening of STDs like chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis for people at high risk of infection or complications. HIV testing is recommended for all people ages 15 to 65 as part of a regular doctor's visit.
  • Vaccination: There are vaccines available to prevent HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. Ask your healthcare provider if you are a candidate for vaccination.


Oral sex involves the use of your mouth and tongue for sex. This includes fellatio ("blowjobs"), cunnilingus ("eating someone out"), or anilingus ("rimming').

Oral sex can be intimate and enjoyable but poses certain health risks. This includes sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis A and B, herpes, HPV, and syphilis. There is also a risk of intestinal parasites and bacteria infections from rimming.

To reduce the risk, use condoms and dental dams. You should also reduce your number of sex partners to limit your odds of exposure and get the recommended STD screenings.

Some people may also be candidates for vaccines that prevent STDs like hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and HPV.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How is oral sex viewed amongst teenagers?

    There are some people, particularly teens, who believe that oral sex doesn't count as "real sex" (in part because it can't cause pregnancy).

    Some refer to oral sex as "getting to third base." This belief may fuel risky behaviors that can lead to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other transmittable infections.

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Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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By Elizabeth Boskey, PhD
Elizabeth Boskey, PhD, MPH, CHES, is a social worker, adjunct lecturer, and expert writer in the field of sexually transmitted diseases.