An Overview of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common yet often overlooked medical condition in women of childbearing age. It impacts both the reproductive system and metabolic health due to the effects of excess male hormones and insulin. Menstrual irregularities, weight gain, acne, and excess hair growth are some common symptoms. Knowing the facts about PCOS and what you can do about it can make it easier to live with and prevent long-term complications.


No two women with PCOS have the same exact experience with it, but common issues associated with this disease include:

Learning more about these and other signs and symptoms of PCOS and how they can be treated will help you make changes that leave you feeling better emotionally and physically.


The underlying cause of PCOS is still unknown. Because it runs in families, there are likely genetic factors at work, as well as health and lifestyle factors.

PCOS is characterized by elevated androgen levels (male hormones like testosterone) in women resulting in an imbalance of sex hormones. This hormone imbalance can affect ovulation by causing irregular, absent, or heavy menstrual periods. Because of this, PCOS is the leading cause of ovulatory infertility.

PCOS is also associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Having higher insulin levels can contribute to weight gain and difficulties losing weight. If insulin is not well controlled, it can lead to more serious health issues such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

PCOS affects approximately 10 percent of women of childbearing age making it the most common endocrine disorder in this stage of the lifecycle.


PCOS is a condition of exclusion. Other conditions that cause similar symptoms need to be ruled out before making an accurate diagnosis. If your primary care doctor suspects PCOS, you will likely be referred to a reproductive endocrinologist who will review your symptoms and do more testing, such as hormone and other blood tests and perform an ultrasound of your ovaries.

To be diagnosed with PCOS, you must meet at least two of the following three criteria:

  1. Irregular or absent periods (fewer than eight menstrual cycles per year)
  2. Blood results or physical signs of hyperandrogenism (high androgens) without another medical cause
  3. The appearance of small follicles on an ultrasound of the ovaries

Despite the name polycystic ovary syndrome, women with PCOS don’t typically have cysts at all. Instead, tiny immature follicles surround the ovaries, appearing like a strand of pearls on an ultrasound. These follicles are the result (and not the cause) of an imbalance of sex hormones which inhibit follicles from maturing and being released for fertilization.

Many professionals feel the name PCOS is misleading and contributes to the challenge of getting more women diagnosed. A new name has been proposed to one that doesn’t focus so much on cysts or ovaries, but rather on the metabolic aspects women with the condition are likely to experience.


Unfortunately, PCOS does not go away and there is not currently a cure. The good news is that it can be treated and managed with lifestyle changes, medications, and specialist-driven procedures.

Diet and lifestyle changes are the primary treatment approach. Losing excess weight can reduce symptoms and may improve fertility. Eating a healthy diet that incorporates plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats can help with the metabolic symptoms and reduce the risks of complications. Staying active by doing some form of physical activity daily—like walking and weight training—is also critical. And getting enough sleep is important to keep insulin down and help with mood and energy.

Medications for PCOS include using oral contraceptives to regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce androgens. Progestin therapy can also help, plus it may reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Anti-androgen medications may be recommended as well. Metformin might be prescribed to address metabolic issues. If infertility is a concern, there are several treatment options.

You may be tempted to try things that have worked for other women with PCOS. But, remember, you are you. What’s right for your specific case will be determined during conversations with your doctor and other health professionals. And don’t be afraid to get more support, like working with a registered dietitian, nutritionist, or therapist.

A Word From Verywell

You may be feeling sad or scared that you were diagnosed with PCOS. Perhaps you even feel validated that there really is something off with your body and it explains why you’ve been experiencing symptoms like weight gain or acne.

You may also feel overwhelmed with the information you were given and what to do about it. It’s important to give yourself time to adjust to the news and get more acquainted with the facts of your condition. Changes don’t have to be made immediately, even though it feels like they should.

Getting a diagnosis of PCOS can certainly be scary. But, the good news is that this condition can be managed and its symptoms can get better. Knowing the facts about PCOS and having a good treatment team to support your lifestyle changes can make all the difference.

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  1. Mccartney CR, Marshall JC. CLINICAL PRACTICE. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(1):54-64. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1514916

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