How to Lower Your Risk and Prevent Viral Hepatitis

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Since hepatitis is caused by many different things, it’s challenging to write about preventing all types of hepatitis in one article. However, some basic strategies, if followed, will lower your risk of developing viral hepatitis.

Vaccination for Protection

Currently, vaccination is only available to protect against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. These forms of hepatitis are caused by viral infections that can be prevented with safe and affordable vaccines. They are available for anyone interested but are strongly recommended for people at high risk for exposure. At this time, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.​

Immune Globulin for Traveling Abroad

Immune globulin, also known as IG, is a potent collection of purified antibodies that provides immediate protection to people recently exposed to hepatitis A or hepatitis B viruses, or to people who may be exposed (for example, travelers to countries where infection rates are high). Because IG is an injection of already formed antibodies, the immune system is immediately able to start protecting the body. This is very different from a vaccine because they require time to stimulate the body’s immune system to produce the desired antibodies. Usually receiving IG will completely prevent disease, but sometimes it will only help reduce its severity and duration. IG can also be given in combination with a vaccine. This is an effective strategy because the IG offers immediate protection until the vaccine is able to provide protection.

Hand Washing

In this modern age of advanced technology, we often forget that our single best protection against many illnesses is regular and proper hand washing. The risk of hepatitis A infection is especially lowered by washing your hands because the hepatitis A virus spreads through the fecal-oral route. This means that the virus enters the body through a person’s mouth with something that came into contact with the feces of an infected person. Because this is usually a person’s hands, regular hand washing interrupts this infection cycle.

Another variation to the fecal-oral route is eating food prepared by an infected person with poor personal hygiene. Sometimes hepatitis A can be spread by infected food handlers who don’t wash their hands well after using the toilet. This could infect a small family after an infected teenager prepares sandwiches for the household, or maybe an entire community by an infected food handler at a popular restaurant. These latter outbreaks quickly gain media attention because of the number of people exposed and the necessary public health intervention which usually consists of health education and maybe even IG clinics. Of course, the best prevention for these outbreaks is consistent hand washing for all food handlers.

Avoid Used Needles

Reusing needles is a dangerous practice that tremendously increases the risks of developing hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections. Because of these risks, and the risks of developing other diseases, you should not use illegal intravenous drugs (drugs that require shooting up) or those that use other items like “snorting straws” that can be contaminated with blood. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are both caused by viruses that are spread by direct contact with infected blood or body fluids in such a way that the viruses can get inside your body. This can happen through a cut in your skin or a puncture with a needle. Because of this, people who use dirty needles are at a very high risk of infecting themselves with the viruses that cause hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

Interestingly, people who work in healthcare settings, and especially those who work with needles in this setting, are at increased risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections because of the potential for a needle-stick injury. Any needle-stick injury should be promptly washed with soap and water followed by the professional medical attention.

Safer Sex

It is possible for hepatitis B and hepatitis C to be spread by sexual contact with a person infected with those viruses. Using condoms properly and consistently is one effective way to reduce your risk of infection. Maintaining a monogamous relationship (with a noninfected partner) is another effective way to avoid infection with these diseases through sexual contact.

Avoid Sharing Certain Personal Items

Anything potentially contaminated with blood can increase the risk of infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Since razors and toothbrushes might be contaminated with small amounts blood (enough to cause disease if that blood was infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus), the safest approach is to only use your own personal items. However, it should be pointed out that casual contact does not spread hepatitis B or hepatitis C. For example, holding hands or hugging an infected person will not spread these viruses.

Wear Gloves When Handling Body Fluids

Wearing gloves when handling body fluids like blood can reduce your risk of exposure to hepatitis B and hepatitis C. While intact skin is an excellent defense against viruses, a small wound or unnoticed cut on your hand is large enough to allow a virus inside your body from handling infected blood. If you work in an environment where you could even imagine the possibility of contacting blood (for example, a school), it’s a good idea to keep a pair of disposable, latex-free gloves nearby.

Avoid Contaminated Water and Food

Since the hepatitis A virus is spread through the fecal-oral route, the infection can happen by eating foods and drinking water contaminated with infected feces. Unaware travelers are infected in this way because this rarely happens in the United States. This is most common in underdeveloped countries where public sanitation needs improvement and public water supplies are unprotected.

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