Top Treatments for Red Eyes

Red eyes are a common problem. That "bloodshot" appearance occurs when blood vessels in the white part of the eye—the conjunctiva—are irritated and become enlarged.

There are many reasons this can happen. In some cases, it's a sign of a medical condition such as pink eye (conjunctivitis), uveitis, corneal ulcer, or acute angle-closure glaucoma., especially if accompanied by certain symptoms.

See your doctor for prompt referral to an ophthalmologist if you have a red eye following an injury, or have severe pain, vision changes, light sensitivity, pus, cold-like symptoms, nausea, or blood in the iris (the colored part of the eye).

Most often, however, the cause of red eyes is benign, such as lack of sleep, alcohol consumption, smoking (in which case kicking the habit would be the most advisable solution), swimming in a chlorinated pool or, ironically, overusing eye drops to treat the redness.

In these cases, there are over-the-counter (OTC) products and home remedies you can try to get the red out and prevent it from coming back.

causes of red and bloodshot eyes
Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell
1

Cold Compresses

Cold compresses work by constricting blood vessels in the eyes.Not only will this help to erase redness, it will also reduce fluid retention around the eyes.

How to Use: To make a cold compress, fill a bowl with ice and water. Submerge a clean washcloth in the water to soak it up, then remove it and wring out the excess. Apply to closed eyes for five to 10 minutes, a few times per day. 

Small bags of frozen peas or corn make effective compresses as well, as they conform to the eye area and tend to stay colder longer than a cloth.

2

Artificial Tears

Artificial tears, clinically known as demulcent drops, are over-the-counter eye drops formulated to restore moisture to dry, inflamed eyes. Artificial tears should be applied fairly often; most people tend to underuse them.

Causes of dry eye include environmental conditions (wind, smoke, dry climate), age (over 50), screen use, medications (antihistamines, decongestants, blood pressure medications, antidepressants), and medical conditions (diabetes, thyroid disease, Sjogren's syndrome).

How to Use: Try inserting artificial tears every hour for the first six hours, then six times per day for the rest of the week.

Some people store a bottle of eye drops in the refrigerator, as the chilled fluid may be soothing to the eyes.

3

Vasoconstrictors

Vasoconstrictors (decongestants) work by shrinking the small blood vessels in the conjunctiva. Examples of vasoconstricting eye drops include Visine Original (tetrahydrozoline) and Clear Eyes (naphazoline), and Neofrin (phenylephrine).

They are not popular with eye doctors because when used for too long, they wear off quickly, prompting too-frequent use. This can result in "rebound redness," meaning when the drops wear off, blood vessels may dilate even larger than they were before, causing eyes to appear bloodshot.

Precautions

Do not use vasodilator eye drops without consulting your doctor first if you are pregnant, have a heart condition, high blood pressure, diabetes, or hyperthryoidism. People who have narrow angle glaucoma should not use these vasodilator eye drops.

How to Use: Apply no more than twice daily, once in the morning and once before bedtime. Vasoconstrictors reduce redness and may be used safely for up to 72 hours. More frequent use of this type of eye drop is not good for your eyes. If you find yourself needing them every morning, consult your doctor.

4

Antihistamine Eye Drops

Antihistamine eye drops contain medications designed to treat symptoms of eye allergy (allergic conjunctivitis)—chief among them itching, but also redness, soreness, stinging, and/or swelling—triggered by the immune system response to an allergen.

Once available only by prescription, antihistamine eye drops can now be purchased over the counter. Brands include Opcon-A and Naphcon-A, which contain both an antihistamine to control itching and a vasoconstrictor to shrink swollen blood vessels to reduce redness.

How to Use: Antihistamines are short-acting, so they must be used at least four times per day or per a doctor's direction. However, they should not be used for more than two to three consecutive days, as this can increase irritation and other symptoms.

If you wear contact lenses, wait 10 minutes after using antihistamine eye drops before inserting them.

Precautions

If your eye allergy symptoms do not improve or worsen, see your eye doctor. Ask your healthcare provider before using an antihistamine/vasoconstrictor eye drop (such as Opcon-A) if you have heart disease, high blood pressure, enlarged prostate, or narrow angle glaucoma.

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Article Sources
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