Sleeping Disorders List and ICD 9 Diagnostic Codes

There are more than 80 different types of sleep disorders. Sometimes, it's helpful, from a psychological and medical standpoint, to look at the long list of established sleep issues that may affect you.

Diagnosis lists like this exist so that billers can apply the appropriate medical codes for billing and health insurance purposes. But these codes may also help you understand the problem that is disturbing your ability to get a restful night's sleep.

This article offers a comprehensive list of sleeping disorders used by doctors. ICD 9 codes are listed below. Your doctor may use the newer ICD 10 medical codes instead, but the conditions are mostly the same.

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Insomnias

Insomnia is defined as difficulty falling or staying asleep or sleep that is not refreshing. Insomnia can affect adults and children. While sometimes there is no identified cause, some common contributors include:

  • Poor sleep habits
  • Medical conditions
  • Psychiatric problems
  • Drug use

Insomnia is broken up into the following conditions:

  • Adjustment sleep disorder (acute insomnia) (307.41)
  • Psychophysiologic insomnia (307.42)
  • Paradoxical insomnia (formerly sleep state misperception) (307.42)
  • Idiopathic insomnia (307.42)
  • Insomnia due to mental disorder (307.42)
  • Inadequate sleep hygiene (V69.4)
  • Behavioral insomnia of childhood (307.42)
  • Insomnia due to drug or substance (292.85)
  • Insomnia due to a medical condition (327.01)
  • Insomnia not due to a substance or known physiologic condition, unspecified (780.52)
  • Physiologic (organic) insomnia, unspecified; (organic insomnia, NOS) (327.00)

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Breathing can be profoundly disrupted during sleep. While unconscious, it becomes difficult to keep the airway open, which may lead to conditions like sleep apnea.

These conditions may result from problems present at birth, the anatomy of the airway, other medical issues, or the use of medications.

Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes

If the brain fails to initiate a breath, a problem called central sleep apnea may occur. Central sleep apnea syndromes include:

  • Primary central sleep apnea (327.21)
  • Central sleep apnea due to Cheyne Stokes breathing pattern (768.04)
  • Central sleep apnea due to high altitude periodic breathing (327.22)
  • Central sleep apnea due to a medical condition, not Cheyne-Stokes (327.27)
  • Central sleep apnea due to a drug or substance (327.29)
  • Primary sleep apnea of infancy (770.81)

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes

In obstructive sleep apnea, the airway collapses. Obstructive sleep apnea syndromes include:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea, adult (327.23)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea, pediatric (327.23)

Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemic Syndromes

In these sleep disorders, abnormal gas exchange occurs during sleep. Sleep-related hypoventilation and hypoxemic syndromes include:

  • Sleep-related nonobstructive alveolar hypoventilation, idiopathic (327.24)
  • Congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome (327.25)
  • Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia Due to a Medical Condition
  • Sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemia due to pulmonary parenchymal or vascular pathology (327.26)
  • Sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemia due to lower airways obstruction (327.26)
  • Sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemia due to neuromuscular or chest wall disorders (327.26)

Other Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder

Sleep apnea or sleep-related breathing disorder, unspecified (320.20)

Hypersomnias of Central Origin

Excessive daytime sleepiness is called hypersomnia. This drowsiness is most often due to a lack of nighttime sleep. However, it may also occur in conditions such as narcolepsy.

Hypersomnia may be related to medication use or other health problems. However, there are also rare conditions that may manifest as excessive sleepiness.

Hypersomnias that are traced to the brain, or those of central origin, include:

  • Narcolepsy with cataplexy (347.01)
  • Narcolepsy without cataplexy (347.00)
  • Narcolepsy due to a medical condition (347.10)
  • Narcolepsy, unspecified (347.00)
  • Recurrent hypersomnia (780.54)
  • Kleine-Levin syndrome (327.13)
  • Menstrual-related hypersomnia (327.13)
  • Idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time (327.11)
  • Idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (327.12)
  • Behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (307.44)
  • Hypersomnia due to a medical condition (327.14)
  • Hypersomnia due to drug or substance (292.85)
  • Hypersomnia not due to a substance or known physiologic condition (327.15)
  • Physiologic (organic) hypersomnia, unspecified (organic hypersomnia, NOS) (327.10)

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

The body’s natural pattern of sleep and wakefulness is called the circadian rhythm. When this becomes disrupted or misaligned, it may result in circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

The most common of these types of sleep disorders is jet lag. Another common manifestation is when teenagers are afflicted with a delayed sleep phase. In addition, people who work late or overnight shifts may run into these types of sleep problems.

The circadian rhythm sleep disorders include:

  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, delayed sleep phase type (327.31)
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, advanced sleep phase type (327.32)
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, irregular sleep-wake type (327.33)
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running (nonentrained) type (327.34)
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, jet lag type (327.35)
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, shift-work type (327.36)
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorders due to medical disorder (327.39)
  • Other circadian rhythm sleep disorder (327.39)
  • Other circadian rhythm sleep disorder due to drug or substance (292.85)

Parasomnias

Parasomnias are typically abnormal sleep behaviors associated with the two major types of sleep: non-REM and REM sleep. These commonly afflict children, but many persist into adulthood.

There is an association between these types of sleep disorders and particular future diseases, including REM behavior disorder and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

These disorders range from bizarre to commonplace and are marked by common things like nightmares or bedwetting. In addition, they are linked to the use of medications or other health problems.

Disorders of Arousal (from Non-REM Sleep)

With these sleep disorders, people do not wake fully, are unresponsive to people trying to wake or interact with them, and have little to no awareness of what is happening during an episode. Disorders of arousal from non-REM sleep include:

Parasomnias Usually Associated with REM sleep

During REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, a person's eyes move quickly under their eyelids, and their breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure increase. Disorders associated with REM sleep include:

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Various conditions result in movements that occur during or before the initiation of sleep. The most common afflictions include teeth grinding, leg cramps, restless legs syndrome, or periodic limb movements.

In totality, the sleep-related movement disorders include:

Other Conditions That Impact Sleep

Beyond the major classes of sleep disorders described above, various other conditions can impact sleep. These may or may not represent a pathological condition, and often they do not. In addition, some conditions are associated with specific medications and psychiatric disorders.

Isolated Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues

These conditions fall between what is considered normal and abnormal sleep. They include:

  • Long sleeper (307.49)
  • Short sleeper (307.49)
  • Snoring (786.09)
  • Sleep talking (307.49)
  • Sleep starts, hypnic jerks (307.47)
  • Benign sleep myoclonus of infancy (781.01)
  • Hypnagogic foot tremor and alternating leg muscle activation during sleep (781.01)
  • Propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset (781.01)
  • Excessive fragmentary myoclonus (781.01)

Other Sleep Disorders

These conditions are lumped into the "other" category because they don't neatly fit into other classifications. Other sleep disorders include:

  • Other physiologic (organic) sleep disorder (327.8)
  • Other sleep disorder not due to a known substance or physiologic condition (327.8)
  • Environmental sleep disorder (307.48)

Sleep Disorders Associated with Conditions Classifiable Elsewhere

Sleep disorders associated with conditions classifiable elsewhere include:

Other Psychiatric or Behavioral Disorders Commonly Encountered in the Differential Diagnosis of Sleep Disorders

Psychiatric disorders commonly affect sleep. Other psychiatric or behavioral disorders commonly encountered in the differential diagnosis of sleep disorders include:

A Word From Verywell

If you believe that you may have a sleep disorder, you should speak with your primary care physician. They may recommend seeing a board-certified sleep specialist to address your concerns.

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  • "The International Classification of Sleep Disorders." American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2nd edition, 2005.
  • Kryger, MH et al. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. ExpertConsult, 5th edition, 2011, pp. 680-683.