Causes and Risk Factors of STDs

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Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are caused by intimate contact with an infected partner. The more sexual partners you have, the more likely you are to be exposed to an STD, but there are other risk factors as well. The type of sex and sexual partners you have, whether you practice safe sex consistently, previous history of an STD, age, and more contribute to your risk as well.

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7 Tips For Preventing STDs

As an aside, it's important to mention that some healthcare professionals and organizations now refer to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Research suggests that the term "STI" may be slightly less stigmatizing.

In addition, the "disease" part of STD implies that a person always has symptoms, which is not necessarily true with sexually transmitted diseases. A person can be infected with something, (for example, herpes or human papillomavirus) but have no symptoms.

Until there is a clear consensus about which term to officially use, either one is fine for now—just know that they are interchangeable. In this article, we will use the term sexually transmitted disease (STD).

risk factors of stds
Verywell / Theresa Chiechi​

Common Causes

Moving forward, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases are reported each year in the United States.

There are a number of different STDs, such as herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, and human papillomavirus (HPV). Some STDs are due to viruses, while others are due to bacteria.

Infections are spread through body fluids, including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk, or transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact. This primarily occurs with sexual contact; however, pregnant women can also transmit some STDs to their unborn children in utero or during delivery.

Consistent use of condoms and other barriers can prevent STDs transmitted through body fluid, such as HIV and chlamydia, but may not offer protection against herpes and other diseases spread through skin-to-skin contact.

Your odds of contracting an STD depends on a number of factors, including:

  • How you have sex (manual, anal, vaginal, oral)
  • How many partners you have
  • What type of encounters you have
  • Whether you practice safe sex
  • How consistently you use condoms or other barriers
  • If you use barriers for intercourse only or oral sex as well
  • Whether you use lubricants and what kinds you use
  • Whether your partner has an STD and, if so, what type
  • The severity of your partner's infection (as measured by viral load and other factors)
  • Whether you have breaks in your skin, infections, or other STDs that make you more susceptible to infection
  • Your overall health and the health of your immune system

Rates of STDs are on the rise, the CDC reports. Between 2014 and 2018, cases of syphilis increased by 71%, gonorrhea by 63%, and chlamydia by 14%. New cases of HIV, however, have declined, with nearly 38,000 new cases reported in 2018.

Lifestyle Risk Factors

There are many things that you can do to protect yourself against STDs. By being aware of the main risk factors that you can control, it's possible to stay healthy without being abstinent.

Here are common lifestyle risk factors for STDs and what you should know about each. 

Age

People who are under the age of 25 are far more likely to be infected with STDs than older people for several reasons.

First, young women are more biologically susceptible to STDs than older women. Their bodies are smaller and they are more likely to experience tearing during intercourse. Their cervixes also aren't fully developed and are more susceptible to infection by chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other STDs.

Finally, in general, young people are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking and are more likely to have multiple partners.

Sexuality

Homosexual and bisexual men, or other men who have sex with men, are disproportionately impacted by syphilis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

In 2018, nearly half of reported syphilis cases in both men and women were traced to men who have sex with only men, the CDC reports.

According to a study published in the American Journal of Public Health, unprotected anal intercourse (for both men and women) increases the likelihood of contracting an STD because of the rigidity and fragility of rectal tissue. This makes anal tissue more susceptible to tearing, upping the risk of becoming infected. 

Unprotected Sex

Although using a condom or other barrier method of birth control isn't a guarantee you won't become infected with a sexually transmitted organism, it's a highly effective way to protect yourself.

Even viruses like HPV, which condoms are less effective against, have reduced transmission rates when condoms are used.

Other than abstinence, consistent condom use, which means using a condom every time you have sex, is the best way to prevent STDs.

This applies even if you are using birth control such as the pill or an intrauterine device (IUD). Once protected from pregnancy, some people are reluctant to use condoms as part of their sexual routine.

Prescription birth control does not protect your from STDs. Dual protection with the additional use of condoms is best.

A History of STDs

Having one STD frequently makes you more susceptible to infection by other STDs. Skin that is irritated, inflamed, or blistered is easier for another pathogen to infect.

Having an STD is also an indirect reflection of your risk of new infection: Since you were exposed once already, it suggests that other factors in your lifestyle may be putting you at risk too.

Multiple Partners

It's pretty straightforward math: The more partners you have, the more likely it is that you will be exposed to an STD. Furthermore, people with multiple partners tend to have partners with multiple partners, which compounds the risk.

Serial Monogamy

Some people only date one person at a time but still date a large number of people each year. This is referred to as serial monogamy.

The danger for people who practice serial monogamy is that each time they are involved in an "exclusive" sexual relationship, they are likely to be tempted to stop using safer sex precautions. But monogamy is only an effective way to prevent STDs in long-term relationships when both of you have tested negative.

Since some tests aren't reliable until you've been infected for some time, many serially monogamous relationships don't last long enough for that to even be a viable option.

Alcohol Use

Drinking can be bad for your sexual health in many different ways. People who use alcohol on a regular basis, particularly in social situations, may be less discriminating about whom they choose to have sex with.

Alcohol also lowers inhibitions. It may also make it more difficult to convince a sexual partner to use a condom or to use one correctly.

Illicit Drug Use

People who have sex under the influence of drugs are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as having sex without a condom or other form of protection.

Drugs may also make it easier for someone to pressure you into engaging in sexual behaviors. Furthermore, injection drug use, in particular, is associated with an increased risk of blood-borne diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

Trading Sex for Money or Drugs

People who trade sex for money or drugs may not be sufficiently empowered to negotiate for safe sex. And partners acquired in this manner are far more likely to be infected with STDs than people in the general population.

Note: Some sex workers, particularly those who have made an independent and informed choice to engage in their work, are highly conscientious about safe sex and prevention. Risk varies according to individual behaviors, just as it does for people who don't engage in commercial sex.

A Word From Verywell

STDs are largely preventable. While abstaining from all sexual contact is the only way to completely prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease, only having sex within the context of a mutually monogamous relationship can also improve your odds of remaining STD-free. In addition, practicing safer sex every time you engage in sexual activity can dramatically decrease your risk of contracting an STD.

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