Sexual Health STDs Diagnosis Print Photo Gallery of Common STDs Warning: Images are graphic and may be disturbing By Elizabeth Boskey, PhD Updated August 07, 2019 More in STDs Diagnosis Chlamydia Herpes HPV Gonorrhea Causes & Risk Factors Syphilis Living With Symptoms Prevention Treatment More STDs View All Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can often be recognized by characteristic signs and symptoms. With that being said, many STDs will have no symptoms at all. The reality is that most people with an STD look like everyone else. They won't have sores, discharge, or any other symptoms worth noting. Because of this, the only way to know for sure if you have an STD is to get tested. Still, it is natural for people to wonder whether a lump, bump, and sore could be an STD. The following photos are intended to provide you some idea of what look for. They are not meant to diagnose your condition or serve as a substitute for proper medical care. Only a doctor can diagnose an STD. This usually requires some form of testing. Although some STDs can be diagnosed by appearance alone, they are the exception, not the rule. Oral Herpes (Cold Sores) Avatar_023 / Getty Images Cold sores, also known as fever blisters or oral herpes, are mainly caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Cold sores are small, painful blisters that most often appear around the lips. They usually break open, crust over, and heal within a period of seven to 10 days. Oral herpes can be easily transmitted through kissing. They can also be passed a partner's genitals during oral sex. While most people think of HSV-1 as an oral infection, it can easily become a genital infection if unprotected oral sex is performed. Choosing the Right Condom for Oral Sex Genital Herpes Dr. N.J. Flumara and Dr. Gavin Hart/CCD An outbreak of genital herpes is characterized by a cluster of small blisters that break open and become painful sores. It is most commonly associated with the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Not everyone infected with HSV-2 will develop symptoms. Others may only have mild symptoms (such as tenderness and unbroken bumps) that are easily missed or ignored. Even though genital herpes is most contagious during an ulcerative outbreak, it can also be passed when there are no outward symptoms. Suppressive therapy not only shortens outbreaks in people with recurrent outbreaks, but it also makes infecting a partner far less likely. In the end, there is no way to know whether a person has herpes unless they've been tested. In fact, a great many people with HSV-2 will only realize they have the virus when a partner becomes infected. How to Prevent Genital Herpes Genital Warts Dr. Wiesner/CDC Human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the virus responsible for genital warts and the development of many cervical and anal cancer cases. The anal lesions pictured are extreme but provide you some sense of what genital warts look like. Generally speaking, the warts are whitish or skin-colored and have an irregular surface, much like cauliflower. They can be big or small and occur in clusters or as a single wart. Genital warts can develop on the vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, or anus. They are sometimes itchy, but most of the time they don't hurt. Whatever the presentation, it is important to get any wart-like growth checked by a doctor. In this way, any cancerous or pre-cancer growths can be discovered before they become severe. Sadly, there is no way to tell if someone has HPV by looking at them. Testing is invariably required. Moreover, there is no commercial test to diagnose HPV in men. For this reason, you should always practice safer sex to help reduce your risk of infection. How to Recognize a Genital Wart STD-Associated Urethritis Jim Pledger/CDC In men, chlamydia and gonorrhea in men often have no symptoms. If symptoms do appear, they will often manifest with a discharge from the penis and other signs of urethritis, including redness and swelling around the opening of the penis and burning or pain when urinating. In some cases, the discharge will only be seen when the penis is "milked." Men with gonorrhea are more likely to experience discharge those with chlamydia. With gonorrhea, the discharge can often be profuse. In some cases, the discharge may only be noticed by yellow stains in your underwear or by a glazed, dry film around the opening of the penis. Other symptoms may include pain and swelling around the testicles and a greater frequency and urgency of urination. If the infection occurs in the throat, a sore, scratchy throat may develop. STD-Associated Cervicitis Cervicitis viewed through a vaginal speculum. Photo courtesy of the CDC Cervicitis is the term used to describe the inflammation of the cervix. It can be caused by many things but is characteristic of STDs like trichomoniasis, gonorrhea or chlamydia. Often, the only time cervicitis is detected is during a pelvic exam, although other symptoms may develop, including: Vaginal itching or irritationBleeding between periodsPain during sex and/or bleeding after sexFrequent and painful urinationA foul-smelling gray or which dischargeA feeling of pressure in the pelvis Because STDs are often internalized in women, they are frequently missed or misdiagnosed. This is why STD testing is so important and why the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends chlamydia and gonorrhea testing in all sexually active women and girls. A Guide to Regular STD Screening Primary Syphilis Dr. Gavin Hart, Dr. N.J. Fiumara, and Dr. Dancewicz/CDC Primary syphilis is one of three stages of a syphilis infection. It is characterized by the appearance of an open, ulcerative sore known as a chancre. Chancres are normally round and painless, which can make them difficult to notice in the throat, vagina, or rectum Syphilis chancres are reasonably easy to spot on the external genitals and will usually heal on their own in three to six weeks. This does not mean the underlying infection has disappeared. If left untreated, a syphilis infection can persist for years. After the secondary phase of infection (characterized by fatigue, flu-like symptoms, and, occasionally wart-like growths around the genitals), the disease will go into a period of latency, only to emerges years later as tertiary syphilis, the most severe form of the disease. To reduce the risk of transmission and avoid complications, the USPSTF recommends syphilis screening for people at high risk of infection as well as pregnant women (to prevent congenital syphilis). How Syphilis Is Treated Pubic Lice SOA-AIDSAmsterdam/Wikimedia Commons Pubic lice may seem more like an annoyance than a public health concern, but the sad truth is that "crabs" affects between six and 12 million Americans each year, according to a 2017 review in Biomedical Research International. Pubic lice are not the same thing as head lice. They are almost always spread through intimate contact and are far less likely to be transmitted through shared clothing or sheets. Infestations are characterized by itching and the appearance of crab-like insects in pubic hair. You should also be able to see white oval eggs attached to hair shafts. Pubic lice are usually found in the genital area but can be spread to other coarse body hair. They are not usually found on the head. Treatment includes a lice-killing lotion containing 1% permethrin or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide. Pubic lice in children are of serious concern as it suggests sexual exposure or abuse. Scabies Susan Lindsley/CDC Scabies is a skin infestation caused by a mite known as the Sarcoptes scabiei. The microscopic insects live on the skin and can burrow into tissues to lay their eggs. This causes an itchy, red rash to develop. The itchiness tends to become worse at night. Scabies symptoms primarily develop in folds of skin where moisture is greatest, such as between the fingers, on the wrists and ankles, and in the genital area. Sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission in sexually active young adults, even though scabies is not classified as an STD per se. Scabies can also be spread through casual contact with clothing, towels, and bedsheets. Treatment typically involves topical medications such as Elimite (permethrin), Eurax (crotamiton), Lindane (gammaxene), or Stromectol (ivermectin). Early Chancroid Symptoms The early stage of a chancroid lesion. Photo courtesy of the CDC (1971) Chancroid is a bacterial STD rarely seen in the United States. Worldwide, chancroid infections are on the decline, although infections still occur in parts of Africa and the Caribbean. As such, infection is possible if you engage in sexual activity while in these regions or have sexual contact someone from these regions. Symptoms usually develop within four to 10 days of exposure. The rash will begin as a tender, elevated bump filled with pus. The bump can erupt into an ulcerative sore similar to a chancre, albeit with ragged rather than smooth edges. Unlike syphilis, the sores will be painful. Chancroid can usually be cured with a single oral dose of azithromycin or a single intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone. Genital ulcers, like those that occur with syphilis and chancroid infection, pose a bigger concern as they can increase your risk of getting HIV. The Link Between HIV and STDs Late Chancroid Symptoms J. Pledger/CDC In severe cases, chancroid can cause inguinal lymph nodes to literally burst. Inguinal lymph nodes are located near the hip crease and drain from the buttocks, legs, and groin. Swelling of the inguinal nodes (known as inguinal lymphadenopathy) is a common symptom of chancroid and often the only sign of the infection. Although lymph node ruptures are rare, they may develop if symptoms are ignored and left untreated. Because chancroid is often asymptomatic in women, the disease may go unnoticed until a more serious secondary infection (such as vulvar cellulitis or HIV) occurs. Why You May Not Realize You Have an STD Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Email Address Sign Up There was an error. Please try again. Thank you, , for signing up. What are your concerns? Other Inaccurate Hard to Understand Submit Article Sources Katz, A.; Veneranda, M.; and Wasserman, G. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Update: A Review of the CDC 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines and Epidemiologic Trends of Common STDs in Hawai‘i. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2012 Mar;71(3):68-73. Sangaré, A.; Doumbo, O.; and Raoult, D. Management and Treatment of Human Lice. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:8962685. DOI: 10.1155/2016/8962685. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Final Recommendation Statement: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Screening. Rockville, Maryland; issued September 2014. USPSTF. Syphilis Infection: Screening. Updated July 2015.