What Is Comfrey Cream?

Comfrey cream, salve, gel, and ointment

Verywell / Anastasia Tretiak

Comfrey cream is a natural substance made from Symphytum officinale, an herb in the borage family. Also known as comfrey ointment, salve, or gel, it's said to reduce inflammation and alleviate pain when applied to the skin. Proponents claim that comfrey cream can treat a variety of health conditions and injuries.

Comfrey cream contains several substances thought to possess beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory compounds and allantoin, a substance thought to speed up wound healing by stimulating the growth of new cells.


Comfrey cream is typically used as a topical herbal remedy for painful muscle and joint conditions, such as low back pain, osteoarthritis, and sprains. It's also used in alternative medicine for the following problems:

  • Bruises
  • Fractures
  • Gout
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sprains and strains
  • Wounds

Does Comfrey Cream Have Any Benefits?

Here's a look at some key findings on the potential health benefits of comfrey cream:

Back Pain

Comfrey cream could help ease back pain, suggests a 2010 study from the British Journal of Sports Medicine. The study included 120 patients with acute upper or lower back pain, each of whom was treated with comfrey ointment or a placebo for five days. Study results revealed that pain intensity decreased an average of 95.2 percent in the group given comfrey ointment (compared to 37.8 percent in the placebo group).


Comfrey cream may help treat osteoarthritis of the knee, according to a Cochrane review of topical herbal therapies. This review included only one study of 220 people with osteoarthritis of the knee were assigned to three weeks of treatment with either comfrey ointment or a placebo. By the study's end, those who used the comfrey ointment had experienced a significantly greater improvement in pain, mobility, and quality of life (compared to members of the placebo group).

Additionally, a 2011 study published in the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine found that comfrey ointment was superior to a placebo in relieving pain and stiffness and enhancing physical functioning. The study involved 43 patients with knee osteoarthritis and a six-week treatment period.

However, a later study published in Osteoarthritis Cartilage in 2012 found some evidence that a topical comfrey cream containing comfrey extract reduced pain, but had no effect on markers of inflammation or cartilage breakdown over 12 weeks of treatment.

Ankle Sprains

Several studies show that comfrey cream may be helpful in the treatment of ankle sprains.

Possible Side Effects

Comfrey contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, substances that can cause liver damage, cancer, and even death, so it should be never be taken by mouth. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned oral comfrey products.

Since these toxic substances can be absorbed through the skin, there's concern about the safety of comfrey cream applied to the skin. It's typically only used in small amounts for a very short period of time.

Experts suggest not using comfrey cream for longer than 10 days in a row and no longer than four to six weeks in a year as a general guideline, but it also depends on factors like skin thickness.

If you're considering using the cream, consult your healthcare provider first to weigh the pros and cons and to use it only under his or her supervision.

Never apply comfrey cream to broken skin or open wounds. Don't take it If you have liver disease, cancer, or are taking any medication that affects the liver. Children, elderly people, and pregnant or nursing women shouldn't use comfrey in any form.

Comfrey ointment
Verywell / Anastasia Tretiak

Dosage and Preparation 

There is no daily recommended allowance for comfrey, which is sold in creams, ointments, gels, and salves. The following applications have been used in research:

  • Back pain: An ointment containing 35 percent comfrey root extract, with or without 1.2 percent methyl nicotinate, applied three times a day for five days.
  • Osteoarthritis: A specific ointment containing 35 percent comfrey root extract, with or without tannic acid, aloe vera gel, eucalyptus oil, and frankincense oil, applied to the knee three times a day for three to six weeks.
  • For sprains: An ointment containing 35 percent comfrey extract applied to ankle sprains four times daily for eight days.

What to Look For 

For topical comfrey cream, look for products labeled as free of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

When selecting a brand of supplements, look for products that have been certified by Consumer Labs, The U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, or NSF International.

Other Questions 

My doctor said I shouldn't use comfrey cream. What other alternatives are there for my back pain?

The number one cause of disability worldwide, back pain is often treated with medication such as over-the-counter pain relievers. Other alternative therapies may help to ease the pain. Undergoing massage or taking up yoga may help alleviate pain and help people with back or joint problems function more easily. There's also some evidence that topical capsaicin cream may help to temporarily relieve pain.

A Word From Verywell 

While studies suggest that comfrey cream may offer some pain-relieving benefits, large-scale clinical trials are needed to confirm these effects. Given the safety concerns, it should only be used under the supervision of your healthcare provider.

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8 Sources
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