Anti-TNF Inhibitors for IBD During Pregnancy

Achieving remission is an important factor in a healthy 9 months

A key concern for women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who want to start a family is how to manage their medications during pregnancy. The best chance for a healthy pregnancy, birth, and baby is to have IBD in remission at the time of conception.

The "rule of thirds” is often discussed when it comes to pregnancy and IBD: one-third of patients will get better during pregnancy, one-third will stay the same, and one-third will get worse.

Pregnant Woman Holding Stomach on Sofa
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For many women with IBD, getting to the point of remission and sustaining it means taking medication along with lifestyle changes or alternative and complementary therapies that are part of their overall treatment plan.

For the most part—and with methotrexate and thalidomide excluded—commonly used medications used to treat Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are considered safe during pregnancy.

Biologic medications, including anti-tumor necrosis factors (TNF) drugs such as Humira (adulimubab), Remicade (infliximab), and Cimzia (certolizumab pegol) are the latest classification of drugs to be approved for use in treating IBD.

When Biologics Might Be Stopped

There has been some debate about stopping medications in the third trimester or timing dosing so that the baby will receive the lowest dose of the medication possible. Some women may decide, along with their gastroenterologist and obstetrician, to change their dosage schedule or to discontinue a medication for a certain amount of time.

Others may continue on their medications with little or no change. It’s an individual decision that should be made after having all the information available and considering the risk of the IBD flaring up during the pregnancy or shortly after.

Biologics do not seem to carry an increased risk of birth defects. There have been reports of outcomes such as premature birth, miscarriages, preeclampsia, and low birth weight in pregnancies, but it’s not well-understood how much responsibility for these is from the IBD versus the medications for IBD.

The most important thing is to keep the IBD as quiet as possible, ideally in remission, during pregnancy. In some cases, that means continuing on the medication that is currently working.

A large national prospective cohort, called the PIANO Registry, followed pregnant women with IBD who received biologics through their pregnancies and until their children were 5 years old. The results from this study were reassuring and will help patients and healthcare providers plan for pregnancy where a biologic is needed to keep a patient in remission.

What the Research Says

There has been some research that shows that women who stop receiving Remicade or Humira in the third trimester may be more likely to have an IBD flare-up in the third trimester or after delivery. A chief concern with stopping a biologic drug during pregnancy is a flare-up will occur and require treatment with steroids.

There’s no data that shows that corticosteroids are any safer during pregnancy than biologics. The goal is to keep pregnant women in remission throughout pregnancy and delivery because that gives the best chance at a good outcome for both mother and baby. 

Discussion With Your Healthcare Provider

Patients and their healthcare providers should discuss the timing of the ant-TNF medication, ideally before conception, but certainly early in pregnancy so that the medication schedule meshes with delivery. For women who have entered deep remission with their IBD, it may open up a discussion of stopping the biologic during the pregnancy or delaying a dose in the third trimester until after delivery.

This is an individualized decision and there are several scenarios to take into account. The first is that remission does need to be more than clinical remission—in other words, this means not only “feeling better” but also an actual lack of disease activity. Some of the tests that practitioners might use to understand disease activity include fecal calprotectin level, small bowel ultrasound, or flexible sigmoidoscopy.

Something else to consider is that stopping and starting certain biologics could lead to developing antibodies to that drug.

People with IBD who have developed antibodies to one type of biologic may go on to develop antibodies to another, so it’s important to consider this factor when deciding to stop a drug.

Remicade (Infliximab)

Remicade is given by infusion at regular intervals (typically eight weeks, but this may be shortened to as few as four weeks in some cases, if necessary). Remicade does cross the placenta, so babies whose mothers are receiving infusions of the drug will also have a certain level in their blood. In the first trimester, the transfer across the placenta is minimal. In the third trimester, it increases significantly.

This causes a great deal of concern and worry for many women with IBD who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. However, although studies show babies born to mothers who receive Remicade during pregnancy will have the drug in their blood, the data is reassuring that there hasn’t been any link to short-term issues or birth defects.

A record database called the Crohn’s Therapy, Resource, Evaluation and Assessment Tool (TREAT) database has been used to track pregnancies in which the mother received Remicade. The authors of one study based on the TREAT registry state that babies born to who women who received Remicade had similar "clinical condition” to those born to women with Crohn’s who didn’t have treatment with Remicade.

This means that there wasn’t any noticeable increase in complications between the two groups. There was one concern, however, which was that there were fewer live births in the Remicade group. The researchers report that these patients had more severe disease and/or were receiving other medications, and it’s not possible to know how much those factors affected the pregnancies.

As more data on its use in pregnancy is becoming available, scientists who specialize in IBD and pregnancy lean towards considering it to be a low-risk medication.

The timing of doses of Remicade during the third trimester should be carefully discussed.

Patients, along with their gastroenterologist and obstetrician, should make decisions based on the risks and benefits for the mother and the baby.

Humira (Adalimumab)

Humira is given by injection at home, usually in intervals of every week or every other week. Babies whose mothers are receiving injections of Humira in the third trimester will also have a certain level in their blood after birth because this drug does cross the placenta. Transfer through the placenta during the first trimester is minimal, but increases in the third trimester.

Even though Humira will be in the babies’ blood for mothers who receive it during the third trimester, studies have shown no link to short-term issues or birth defects.

Based on limited studies, Humira appears to be safe during pregnancy. Three case reports and the OTIS (Organization for Teratology Information Specialists) registry lead researchers who specialize in IBD to consider it to be a low-risk medication in pregnancy.

Pregnant women with IBD will want to talk with their healthcare providers about timing doses of Humira during the third trimester or close to delivery based on the risks and benefits for the mother and the baby.

Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol)

Cimzia is given by injection at home, usually in intervals of about four weeks. The loading dose is normally given in two injections of 200 milligrams each on day 0 (day 0), week two (day 14), and week four (day 28). Thereafter, two injections of 200 mg are given every four weeks (28 days). Cimzia is different than Remicade and Humira (which are actively transported across the placenta) because this drug is passively transported across the placenta.

This means less of the drug is passed to the baby from the mother, making it potentially more attractive to people who are considering a change in treatment either prior to or during pregnancy. However, it’s important to consider all aspects of a medication before making a change, including the potential for maintaining remission (which is the most important factor in planning a pregnancy with IBD).

Cimzia is considered to be low-risk during pregnancy as the amount of the drug that’s passed to an infant during the third trimester is low. A study published in 2019 looking at the effects of Cimzia on more than 11,000 pregnant people and their babies confirmed the drug does not pose significant problems to either.

A Word From Verywell

Most women considering pregnancy want to be able to stop all medications but with IBD and other autoimmune conditions, that may not be the best course of action. Stopping IBD medications without first discussing with healthcare professionals how that decision may affect the disease (and, indeed, the pregnancy) isn’t recommended.

Anti-TNF medications have not been shown to carry an increased risk of birth defects and most IBD experts consider them safe to use during pregnancy. Be sure to speak with your practitioner and healthcare professionals to determine your best course of action.

13 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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Additional Reading

By Amber J. Tresca
Amber J. Tresca is a freelance writer and speaker who covers digestive conditions, including IBD. She was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis at age 16.