How Endometrial Cancer Is Treated

Surgical removal of the uterus is the prime therapy

In the United States, endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system. The upside is that most women are diagnosed when the cancer is at an early stage. This means that for many women, endometrial cancer can be cured with surgery alone.

While surgery is the first-line treatment for endometrial cancer, some women will need to undergo additional therapies like radiation therapy or chemotherapy based on their risk of cancer recurrence after treatment.

This risk of recurrence—defined as low, intermediate, or high—is designated by a woman's cancer healthcare provider (called a gynecological oncologist) and is based largely on the following three factors:

  • The stage of cancer (how far the cancer has spread)
  • How aggressive the cancer is, based on an examination of the cancer tissue (called the tumor grade)
  • The type of cells that make up the cancer (called histological type)

To provide two examples, a woman with low-risk endometrial cancer will likely only undergo surgery for her treatment (without radiation therapy or chemotherapy). On the other hand, a woman with high-risk endometrial cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

What is endometrial cancer?
 Verywell / Emily Roberts

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Surgery is the treatment of choice for most endometrial cancers, often consisting of a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) along with the removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries (called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy).

Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

A total abdominal hysterectomy, which refers to the removal of the uterus through the abdomen, can be accomplished through laparoscopy or laparotomy, depending on a woman's situation and her surgeon's preference.

With a laparoscopy, multiple small incisions are made in a woman's abdomen. Then, using a thin instrument with a camera and light at the end, the surgeon will remove the uterus (and the ovaries and fallopian tubes). With a laparotomy, a larger skin incision is made in the abdomen in order to remove the above organs.

Vaginal Hysterectomy

Besides a total abdominal hysterectomy, the uterus can also be removed through the vagina (called a vaginal hysterectomy). Again, the type of surgery decided upon takes into account many factors and requires careful thought.

Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system in the United States.

Lymph Node Removal

In addition to surgical removal of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes, your surgeon will also likely remove pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. This is because while cancer begins in the uterus, it can spread to the lymph nodes (and other organs, like the cervix) if left untreated.

Lymph node removal can be done at the same time as the total abdominal hysterectomy. However, with a vaginal hysterectomy, lymph node removal will need to be performed laparoscopically.

Radical Hysterectomy

If the cancer has spread to the cervix, a radical hysterectomy is performed. This type of surgery entails removing the uterus, cervix, upper part of the vagina, and some tissue located next to the uterus. Of course, as with many hysterectomies, the fallopian tubes and ovaries are also removed.

Side Effects and Risks

A hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is a surgery performed in an operating room under general anesthesia. After surgery, a woman will have to recover in the hospital for up to one week, depending on the type of surgery performed.

Generally speaking, recovery time for laparotomy is longer than laparoscopic surgery.

As with any surgery, there are risks involved, which should be discussed carefully with your healthcare provider.

Some of these risks include:

  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Damage to the nerves that control the bladder (from a radical hysterectomy)
  • Swelling of the legs from lymph node removal (called lymphedema)

Keep in mind, for premenopausal women, by removing the uterus (and/or ovaries and fallopian tubes), a woman becomes infertile. If the ovaries are removed, a woman will also enter menopause (if she is premenopausal before going into surgery) because there is no more estrogen being released by the ovaries.

Some premenopausal women opt to keep their ovaries if they are diagnosed with early-stage endometrial cancer (a choice that requires a careful discussion with their healthcare provider).


Radiation therapy is administered by a healthcare provider called a radiation oncologist and involves using a type of high-energy X-ray to slow or halt the growth of cancer cells. Most commonly, radiation is given after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells and prevent a recurrence.

However, for some early-stage endometrial cancers, radiation therapy may be used alone. In less common situations, surgery may not be possible, potentially due to a woman's older age, or if she has multiple other medical problems that make surgery too risky. In this case, radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy may be the treatment of choice.

Vaginal Brachytherapy

With vaginal brachytherapy (VBT), pellets of radioactive material are placed into a device which is then temporarily placed inside a woman's vagina. Typically, a woman will undergo a radiation session (which lasts less than an hour) once weekly or daily at least three times.

External Beam Radiation Therapy:

With external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), a machine located outside the body focuses radiation beams on the cancer. This type of radiation is given daily, five days per week, for five to six weeks. A typical session is fairly quick, lasting less than thirty minutes or so.

Side Effects and Risks

Common short-term side effects of radiation include:

  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Frequent urination, along with bladder discomfort
  • Loose stools and feeling the need to have a bowel movement frequently
  • Vaginal inflammation causing discharge and sores

There are also potential long-term side effects of radiation therapy. For example, extreme vaginal dryness along with vaginal scarring and narrowing can make sex painful.

Urine leakage and pain or bleeding with bowel movements may also occur, due to radiation-induced inflammation of the bladder and bowel, respectively.

Lastly, lymphedema (impaired lymph fluid drainage leading to leg swelling) is another long-term side effect and occurs as a result of EBRT to the pelvis.


Chemotherapy refers to drugs that kill rapidly duplicating cells in the body, which happens to be cancer cells, along with some normal cells, such as those in the bone marrow or digestive tract (this is where the side effects of chemotherapy come into play).

With high-risk endometrial cancer, chemotherapy may be given after surgery, with or without radiation therapy, or along with radiation therapy (called chemoradiation) if a woman's cancer is inoperable.

A typical chemotherapy regimen for endometrial cancer includes the two drugs carboplatin and Taxol (paclitaxel), although some healthcare providers use a three-drug regimen that consists of cisplatin, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), and Taxol (paclitaxel).

Chemotherapy is often given about four to six weeks after surgery and before radiation therapy is given (if radiation is part of the plan).

Side Effects and Risks

Depending on the chemo drugs used to treat your endometrial cancer, there are various potential side effects. That said, some of the more common ones include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Mouth sores
  • Temporary hair loss
  • Excessive tiredness
  • Low blood counts
  • Numbness and tingling of the fingers and toes (called neuropathy)

Hormone Therapy

According to the American Cancer Society, there are four types of hormone therapy that may be used to treat endometrial cancer, with progestin being the primary one.

Hormone therapy is generally reserved for women who have advanced endometrial cancer who cannot undergo surgery or radiation therapy. Progestin may be given to certain premenopausal women with low-risk endometrial cancer who still want to have children.


Progestins, like Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) or Megace (megestrol acetate) can help slow the growth of endometrial cancer cells.


Used traditionally to treat breast cancer, tamoxifen may be used to treat advanced endometrial cancer or endometrial cancer that has returned after treatment (called a recurrence).

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonists

GnRH agonists like Zoladex (goserelin) or Lupron (leuprolide) turn off the production of estrogen by the ovaries in women who are premenopausal. By decreasing estrogen in the body, the growth of endometrial cancer may be slowed.

Aromatase Inhibitors

While most estrogen is produced in a woman's ovaries, some estrogen is produced in the body's fatty tissue (called adipose tissue). The aromatase inhibitors Femara (letrozole), Arimidex (anastrozole), and Aromasin (exemestane) reduce the formation of estrogen from adipose tissue. These drugs are still being investigated for their use in treating endometrial cancer.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

The immune system turns “checkpoint” immune cell proteins on (or off) to start an immune response. Immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs can be used to treat some endometrial cancers by targeting these checkpoints.

Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Jemperli (dostarlimab) boost the body’s immune response against cancer cells, which can shrink some tumors or slow their growth.


Keytruda has been approved in combination with lenvatinib (Lenvima, Eisai) for people with certain advanced endometrial carcinomas, typically after at least one other drug treatment has been tried and curative surgery or radiation isn’t possible. Keytruda can also be used alone to treat advanced endometrial cancers, typically after other treatments have been tried, and if the cancer cells have certain testable characteristics.


Jemperli has been approved for certain recurrent advanced endometrial cancers that have progressed on or following prior treatment.

Side Effects and Risks

Side effects can include:

  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Nausea
  • Itching
  • Skin rash
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Constipation or diarrhea

Other, more serious side effects are possible:

Infusion reactions: Which include fever, chills, flushing of the face, rash, itchy skin, feeling dizzy, wheezing, and trouble breathing.

Autoimmune reactions: The immune system may attack other parts of the body, which can cause serious or even life-threatening problems in the lungs, intestines, liver, hormone-making glands, kidneys, skin, or other organs.

It’s very important to tell your healthcare provider right away about any side effects you experience—either during or after treatment.

Complementary Medicine

According to a study in the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, the most commonly utilized complementary medicine practices used by women with gynecological cancer include:

  • Vitamin and mineral use
  • Herbal supplements
  • Prayer
  • Deep breathing relaxation exercises

Some patients find alternative interventions like massage, acupuncture, yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, meditation, and biofeedback helpful.

While several types of complementary therapies may provide benefits (for example, easing pain or stress), many have not been rigorously studied to confirm their overall safety or effectiveness.

In the end, implementing complementary medicine into your traditional endometrial cancer care is certainly possible and a reasonable goal. Be sure, though, to do so only under the guidance of your oncologist. This way you can be certain of their safety and avoid any undesirable side effects or interactions.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Does endometrial cancer spread quickly?

    Not at all. The most common form of endometrial cancer, type 1, tends to grow quite slowly, which is why it typically is caught early.As many as 70% of women with endometrial cancer are diagnosed while the disease is in stage 1, the earliest stage, meaning the cancer has not metastasized (spread) beyond the uterus.

  • What is the survival rate for endometrial cancer?

    The average five-year relative survival rates are based on the stage of endometrial cancer at the time of diagnosis:

    • Localized (the cancer has not spread beyond the uterine lining): 95%
    • Regional (the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or structures near the original site of the tumor): 69%
    • Distant (the cancer has spread to parts of the body far from the original cancer): 17%
    • All stages combined: 81%
  • What are the types of brachytherapy?

    The types are known as low-dose rate and high-dose rate. Low-dose rate brachytherapy requires a two to three day hospital stay, during which an intravaginal device delivers continuous radiation without removal or interruption. High-dose rate brachytherapy, which is administered on an out-patient basis, delivers radiation internally for 10 to 20 minutes at a time. At least three doses are given, either over the course of three days or several weeks.

  • How long do I have to wait to have sex after brachytherapy?

    You may not have to wait at all. In fact, for most people, vaginal intercourse is OK during treatment, although it's essential to clear this with your healthcare provider. After you've finished your treatment, sex may even be beneficial if the radiation has caused vaginal stenosis, a common side effect of radiation in which scar tissue makes the vagina shorter and/or narrower.

  • What is targeted therapy for endometrial cancer?

    Targeted therapy is the use of medications aimed at specific molecules in cancer cells. It differs from chemotherapy in that it doesn't destroy healthy cells in the body. They have a different side effect profile from chemotherapy, which should be discussed with your oncologist. Drugs used to treat endometrial cancer in this way include:

15 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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  2. American Cancer Society. Surgery for Endometrial Cancer.

  3. American Cancer Society. Radiation therapy for endometrial cancer.

  4. American Cancer Society. Chemotherapy for Endometrial Cancer.

  5. American Cancer Society. Hormone Therapy for Endometrial Cancer.

  6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA grants regular approval to pembrolizumab and lenvatinib for advanced endometrial carcinoma. FDA.

  7. American Cancer Society. Immunotherapy for Endometrial Cancer.

  8. GSK Consumer Healthcare. GSK receives FDA accelerated approval for JEMPERLI (dostarlimab-gxly) for adult patients with mismatch repair-deficient (Dmmr) recurrent or advanced solid tumours. GSK.

  9. Abdallah R, Xiong Y, Lancaster JM, Judson PL. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Women With Gynecologic Malignancy Presenting for Care at a Comprehensive Cancer Center. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2015;25(9):1724-1730. doi:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000549

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Additional Reading

By Colleen Doherty, MD
 Colleen Doherty, MD, is a board-certified internist living with multiple sclerosis.