An Overview of Vaginal Contraceptive Film (VCF)

This hormone-free form of birth control kills sperm

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Vaginal contraceptive film (VCF) is a super-thin, hormone-free film that is inserted into the vagina where it dissolves and delivers nonoxynol-9, a chemical that kills sperm (spermicide). You can buy VCF films without a prescription. They are intended to be used every time you have intercourse.

You may already be aware of nonoxynol-9, as it is also available in jellies, creams, tablets, suppositories, and foams. Some condoms are even coated with spermicide. Though their failure rate is high compared to other available methods, VCFs are another option that can be considered as you weigh your contraception choices.

Vaginal Contraceptive Film (VCF)
Dawn Stacey


Vaginal contraceptive film, once inserted, absorbs vaginal secretions and melts into a thick gel that serves as a barrier to immobilize sperm. VCF has been around for over 20 years and vigorously tested.

In commenting on spermicides in general, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers them safe and effective in preventing pregnancy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the "perfect use" effectiveness for spermicidal methods has a failure rate of 18%, or is only 82% effective in the first year of use.

However, typical user effectiveness rates for spermicides (those who may not use it consistently or may forget it at times) are closer to 72% percent. So, with typical use, 28 out of every 100 women will become pregnant during a year using this method alone.

VCF is most effective for pregnancy prevention when used with another back-up form of birth control, such as male and female condoms

Side Effects

The side effects of VCF, if any, are mostly mild. Although not one of the most effective methods of birth control, it is far more effective than not using any method at all, and it is a safe contraceptive when used consistently and according to the instructions provided.

According to the manufacturer of vaginal contraceptive film, a small number of VCF users have reported minor irritation or burning of the vagina or penis. The fact that VCF uses less of the active ingredient than other spermicidal forms, such as foams and creams, however, means such side effects occur less often than with other nonoxynol-9 options.

Is It Right for You?

Vaginal contraceptive film has some advantages and disadvantages that you should be aware of. They have both health-related and practical implications.

  • Hormone-free (good for those sensitive to birth control options containing estrogen and progestin)

  • Allows for spontaneity (lasts for three hours post-insertion)

  • Helps increase the effectiveness of pregnancy prevention when used together with a condom

  • Can't be felt by either partner

  • Easy to use—not messy and doesn't stain

  • Small (2-inch square)—sold in individually sealed pouches

  • Widely available over the counter at drugstores and online

  • Does not protect against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

  • Frequent use of VCFs or other products containing nonoxynol-9 may increase vaginal irritation, which may increase STD risk

  • Spermicidal methods (when used alone) have a higher failure rate than many other birth control methods

Remember: the only form of birth control effective for preventing STDs is a condom.

How to Use It

VCF must be manually inserted into the vagina. It dissolves almost immediately after insertion. There is nothing to remove.

You or your partner can insert the VCF film, but it is important to place it far enough inside the vagina so that it is in contact with the cervix. You should be sure you or your partner can locate your cervix with a finger so it gets placed correctly.

VCF must be inserted at least 15 minutes before intercourse for it to completely dissolve and work effectively.

A new film must be used each time you have intercourse. Once inserted, it will provide protection from pregnancy for up to three hours. VCF has a shelf life of five years.

A Word From Verywell

VCF films are just one of the many options for preventing pregnancy. Finding one that is right for you may involve both you and your partner assessing your wants and needs and your doctor weighing in on any potential safety concerns. Whatever you choose, be sure you know how to use it properly for maximum effectiveness.

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Article Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Birth control. Updated February 11, 2020.

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Appendix D: Contraceptive effectiveness. Recommendations and reports. MMWR. April 25, 2014/63(RR04);47-47.

  3. Apothecus Pharmaceutical Corp. VCF: Vaginal Contraceptive Film.

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