Brain & Nervous System Autism Print What Are the Different Types of Autism? Many Different Autisms; One Autism Spectrum By Lisa Jo Rudy Updated July 28, 2019 Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD More in Autism Symptoms Causes & Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatment/Therapy Living With Support & Coping Autism & Family Life Adult Autism High-Functioning Autism View All Autism is a "spectrum disorder," meaning that people with autism may have a wide range of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms. But do all people with an autism spectrum diagnosis have the same disorder, no matter what their symptoms? How Autism Diagnoses Have Changed in Recent Years From 1994 to May 2013, the autism spectrum was represented by five autism spectrum diagnoses in the fourth version of the official Diagnostic Manual. They included Asperger syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Autistic Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Syndrome, and Rett Syndrome. Unfortunately, these diagnoses were confusing. Not only were they difficult to define, but different practitioners selected different diagnoses for the same patients. To clarify their diagnoses, practitioners (as well as teachers and therapists) used terms like "severe autism," "mild autism," and "high functioning autism." These terms, however, aren't true diagnoses at all; they're just descriptions. And while they were intended to help parents and teachers better understand a child's status on the autism spectrum, each practitioner had their own idea of what "mild" or "severe" might look like. How We Think About Autism Today In 2013, the fifth version of the Diagnostic Manual was published. In the DSM-5, there is just one "autism spectrum disorder." Everyone with an autism diagnosis, no matter what his or her symptoms, is now lumped under that single diagnosis. Three levels of autism, along with descriptors such as "nonverbal" are intended to make diagnosis easier and clearer. But that doesn't mean we've stopped using the older or informal terms, some of which are a bit clearer than Autism Spectrum Disorder Level II. In fact, even doctors and other practitioners are likely to use terms like Asperger Syndrome while using the new autism spectrum code for billing purposes. Welcome to the complex world of many autisms. What Is the Autism Spectrum? Getty Images The "autism spectrum" describes a set of developmental delays and disorders which affect social and communication skills and, to a greater or lesser degree, motor and language skills. It is such a broad diagnosis that it can include people with high IQs and mental retardation. People with autism can be chatty or silent, affectionate or cold, methodical or disorganized. Until May 2013, official diagnoses within the autism spectrum included autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Asperger syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, and Rett Syndrome. Today, there is just one Autism Spectrum Disorder, with three levels of severity—but many therapists, clinicians, parents, and organizations continue to use terms like PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome. What Are Pervasive Developmental Disorders? KidStock/Getty Images "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" is a formal term that, between 1994 and 2013, meant exactly the same thing as "autism spectrum disorder." If your child was diagnosed before 2013 you may have heard this term from an evaluator or doctor, but it is no longer in general use. Key Points: The term Pervasive Developmental Disorder is no longer in general useThe term was synonymous with autism spectrum disorderPeople with PDD have a wide range of developmental differences which can be mild or severe What Is Asperger Syndrome? Adriana Varela Photography/Moment/Getty Images Asperger syndrome describes individuals at the highest-functioning end of the autism spectrum. The term—and the diagnosis—was removed from the diagnostic manual in 2013, but virtually everyone in the autism community continues to use it because of its usefulness in describing a very specific group of people. People with Asperger syndrome generally develop spoken language in the same way as typically developing children but have a tough time with social communication. These difficulties become more obvious as they get older and social expectations increase. Because people with Asperger syndrome are often very intelligent – but "quirky" – the disorder is sometimes nicknamed "geek syndrome" or "little professor syndrome." Key Points: Asperger syndrome is no longer a valid diagnosisAsperger syndrome was and is still often used to describe people with "high functioning" autismMost people with the symptoms of Asperger syndrome are of normal or above normal intelligence with strong verbal skill and significant difficulties with social communicationMany people with Asperger syndrome have significant sensory challengesPeople with the symptoms of Asperger syndrome are now considered to have Level 1 Autism Spectrum Disorder Why Asperger Syndrome Is No Longer an Official Diagnosis What Is Mild Autism? Getty Images The term "mild autism" is not an official diagnosis. It's simply a more descriptive term than "Asperger syndrome" or "autism." Generally speaking, when people use the term mild autism they are referring to individuals whose symptoms fit an autism spectrum diagnosis, but who has strong verbal skills and few behavioral issues. Those individuals may, however, have significant problems with social communication. They may also have problems coping with too much sensory input (loud noise, bright lights, etc.). Key Points: Mild autism is essentially similar to or identical to Asperger syndromePeople with mild autism may be difficult to recognize until they are under stress or coping with complex social situationsMost people with mild autism are now considered to have Level 1 Autism Spectrum Disorder What Is High Functioning Autism? Thomas Barwick/Taxi/Getty Images Like "mild" autism, high functioning autism (sometimes shortened to HFA) is a made-up term that's become more and more commonly used. At one point (before 2013), the term was used to distinguish "autism" from "Asperger syndrome." The official distinction made by practitioners before 2013 was that people with HFA had or have speech delays while people with Asperger Syndrome have normal speech development. Of course, these days there IS no Asperger syndrome, making the distinction moot. Key Points: High functioning autism, like mild autism, is similar to Asperger syndrome and would now be termed Level 1 Autism Spectrum DisorderUnlike people who were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, people with HFA developed language slowly or idiosyncraticallyLike Asperger syndrome and mild autism, HFA is a real and significant disability which can lead to challenges in managing social situations, school demands, work expectations, or recreational activities. What Is PDD-NOS? RapidEye/Getty Images "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified" is a mouthful of words that, until 2013, were used to describe individuals who didn't fully fit the criteria for other specific diagnoses but are nevertheless autistic. Because there is no easy way to define the symptoms of PDD-NOS, which may range from very mild to very severe, the diagnostic category no longer exists, though a new diagnosis, Social Communication Disorder, may become a similar "catchall" category. Key Points: As of 2013, PDD-NOS is no longer a valid diagnosisPDD-NOS was a "catchall" for disorders with autism-like symptoms that didn't fit the full criteria for People with PDD-NOS could have mild or severe symptomsThose people who were diagnosed with PDD-NOS prior to the DSM-5 will now have an autism spectrum diagnosis and may be diagnosed at Level 1, 2, or 3 depending on the severity of symptoms PDD-NOS Was Part of the Autism Spectrum What Is Severe Autism? AMELIE-BENOIST/BSIP/Getty Images Severe autism is not an official diagnosis; instead, it is a descriptive term along with profound autism, low functioning autism, and classic autism. People with "severe autism" are often non-verbal and intellectually disabled, and may have very challenging behaviors. Key Points: Severe autism is usually diagnosed as Level 3 Autism Spectrum DisorderSevere autism is extremely challenging and may include aggression and other difficult behaviorsMost people with severe autism never gain meaningful use of spoken languageSome people with symptoms of severe autism do gain the ability to communicate through signs, picture boards, or other means What Is Rett Syndrome? Getty Images Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects only girls. It is the only one of the former autism spectrum disorders that can be diagnosed medically (so far); as of May 2013, it is no longer included in the Autism Spectrum. Girls with Rett syndrome develop severe symptoms including the hallmark social communication challenges of autism. In addition, Rett syndrome can profoundly impair girls' ability to use their hands usefully. Key Points: Rett syndrome is no longer part of the autism spectrumRett syndrome is a genetic disorder which can be medically diagnosedRett syndrome impacts only girlsSymptoms of Rett syndrome include social communication challenges and the loss of purposeful use of one's hands What Is the Broad Autism Phenotype? Compassionate Eye Foundation/David Oxberry/OJO Images Ltd/Getty Images The broad autism phenotype includes those people with the merest touch of autism. This is sometimes described as having "shadow symptoms." These sub-clinical symptoms can include social awkwardness, anxiety, a preference for sameness and routine, and an unusual degree of discomfort around bright lights, loud noise, and other sensory "assaults." Such mild symptoms, which are recognizable but which do not significantly impair daily functioning, are common among family members of people with full-blown autism. Is this really autism? Or just a personality type? As with many issues related to autism, it depends on whom you ask. Either way, it is often helpful for people with such symptoms to seek help with building social communication skills and coping with sensory challenges. Key Points: There is a "broad autism phenotype" which includes people with milder autism-like symptomsMany people with such symptoms have children or other relatives on the autism spectrumMany of the treatments available for autism can be helpful for people with milder versions of the same symptoms Making Sense of the 3 Levels of Autism Autism Terms Aren't Always Helpful While some autism-related terms are descriptive, they're not always terribly helpful. That's because each and every individual on the autism spectrum is unique. Even if you think you know what a term means, it's always important to learn more about a particular individual's strengths and challenges. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Email Address Sign Up There was an error. Please try again. Thank you, , for signing up. What are your concerns? Other Inaccurate Hard to Understand Submit Article Sources Losh M, Childress D, Lam K, Piven J. Defining key features of the broad autism phenotype: a comparison across parents of multiple- and single-incidence autism families. American journal of medical genetics Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2016;147B(4):424-433. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30612. Montgomery CB, Allison C, Lai M-C, Cassidy S, Langdon PE, Baron-Cohen S. Do adults with high functioning autism or asperger syndrome differ in empathy and emotion recognition?Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2016;46:1931-1940. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2698-4. Rettsyndrome.org. What is Rett Syndrome? Web. 2018.