What You Should Know About the Clitoris

The clitoris plays a key role in sexual stimulation and pleasure. It is a part of the genitals found in people assigned female at birth. Most of the clitoris is inside the body and not visible to the eye, but it has a small nub that you can see. This is called the glans clitoris.

The parts of the clitoris you can't see include masses of erectile tissue, making it an erectile organ. It develops from the same structures in the human embryo as the penis does, and has many similar properties. The clitoris is highly sensitive during arousal and stimulation.

This article discusses the clitoris, its location, and its structure and function. It also explains some health issues that can affect the clitoris.

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Location of the Clitoris

The vulva is a term used to describe the external female genital organs. The vagina is an internal organ. The parts of the vulva are located around the vagina. These organs include:

  • The labia majora, also called lips
  • The labia minora, also called lips
  • The clitoris
  • The vestibule of the vagina, the area that surrounds the vagina
  • The bulb of the vestibule, found on either side of the vagina
  • The glands of Bartholin, which secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina

The two sets of labia form an oval shape around the vagina. The labia minora are the smaller inner lips that surround the vagina. The labia majora are the larger outer lips. The clitoris is located at the point where the labia majora meet near the pubic bone.

The clitoris is attached to the labia, as well as structures called the pubic symphysis and the mons pubis (a pad of fatty tissue), by ligaments that suspend them. They keep the clitoris in its bent shape. In masculinizing genital surgery, these ligaments are released to allow the clitoris to straighten and increase in length.

Recap

The clitoris is a part of the genitals found in people assigned female at birth. It has a small external part you can see, called the glans clitoris, located where the labia majora (lips) meet near the pubic bone. The rest of the clitoris is made up of erectile tissue that's inside the body. It is highly sensitive to sexual stimulation and serves to enhance sexual pleasure.

Clitoris Structure and Anatomy

Keep in mind that the clitoris contains elements that are both inside and outside of the body. The parts of the clitoris you can see include:

  • Glans clitoris: This small part of the clitoris is located at the top of the vulva. It's packed with nerves and highly sensitive to stimulation. It does not contain any erectile structures.
  • Clitoral hood (prepuce): A fold of skin covers the glans clitoris. It is called the clitoral hood. It is technically a part of the labia minora but is sometimes included in the clitoral anatomy.

The internal parts of the clitoris wrap around the urethra and extend to the top of the vagina. These internal parts include:

  • Body (corpora): The body of the clitoris is relatively short. It is made up of two paired cylinders of erectile tissue. They are called corpora.
  • Crura: The corpora each branch into long crura. The crura reach about 5 to 9 centimeters (cm) into the pelvis. They are made up of erectile tissue and surround the urethra and vaginal canal.
  • Bulbs: The bulbs of the clitoris also are made up of erectile tissue. They are found between the crura and next to the surface of the vaginal wall, along the line of the labia minora. The bulbs can double in size during sexual arousal, going from 3 to 4 cm flaccid to about 7 cm erect.
  • Root: The root is where all of the nerves from each of the erectile bodies of the clitoris come together. Close to the surface of the body at the juncture of the crura, this area is very sensitive. The back portion of the clitoral root is near the opening of the urethra.

The erectile function of clitoral tissue requires blood flow and the clitoris is well supplied with blood vessels. The body of the clitoris is covered by the tunica albuginea, a sheath of connective tissue.

Clitoral function also relies on a number of different nerves: the dorsal nerve, parts of the pudendal nerve, and the cavernous nerves. These nerves also supply the structures of the vagina, which may be part of the reason why stimulating the clitoris leads to sexual arousal.

Anatomical Variations

There are differences, or intersex conditions, in how the genitals develop in some people. Some of these involve changes to the clitoris and how it looks at birth. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, for example, may lead to a larger clitoris that looks more like a penis.

Surgeons have "corrected" these differences in the past. In recent years, there has been more pushback from intersex individuals and their families, as well as many doctors and researchers. Many now recommend postponing surgery until a person is old enough to decide for themselves.

The exception is in cases where these anatomical differences may make it difficult or impossible to urinate. That is a problem that needs to be corrected surgically.

Recap

Most of the clitoris is actually an internal structure, made up of erectile tissue. Its response to sexual stimulation relies on blood flow to the clitoris and the many nerves that support sensation. Some people may be born with an enlarged clitoris, which may indicate an intersex condition. In many cases, this does not need to be treated. Surgery may be an option if the enlarged clitoris interferes with the nearby urethra and the ability to urinate.

Role of the Clitoris in Sexual Pleasure

There is still some debate about the role of clitoral anatomy in sexual function and orgasm. The specific pathways for how the clitoris affects arousal and orgasm are not entirely understood. Unlike the penis, the clitoris does not have a direct role in reproduction. Its primary function is sexual arousal and pleasure during sex.

In some people, the clitoris becomes slightly enlarged during sexual activity. When this happens it becomes even more sensitive. Stimulation of the clitoris may also directly affect blood flow to the other genital organs, including the vaginal walls. Some people need to have the clitoris stimulated to achieve or enhance an orgasm.

The clitoris is sensitive to touch. Many people need to have the clitoris stimulated in order to have an orgasm.

Conditions Affecting the Clitoris

Like most organs, there are health conditions that can affect the clitoris. Some are very mild and easy to treat. Others are more serious.

Some of the most common symptoms include:

  • Soreness from sexual stimulation
  • Itching caused by soaps, cleansers, or lotions
  • Pain from injury or infection
  • Pain or itching from vulvar cancer
  • Pain from long-term engorgement

Most conditions of the clitoris, including yeast infections or sexually transmitted diseases, can be treated. Depending on the cause, a doctor may suggest antibiotics, or creams to soothe irritation.

There are a few conditions that can directly affect the structure or health of the clitoris. They include:

  • Clitoromegaly means the size of the clitoris is larger. It may not need to be treated in infants, but a new-onset condition in children is often the result of neurofibromatosis. This can be treated surgically, if needed.
  • Metastatic cancer that spreads from another site can cause lesions of the clitoris, though this is rare. Scientists have reported such spread to the clitoris in cases of breast cancer, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer. 
  • Lichen sclerosus is an autoimmune skin condition. It can, in rare cases, cause scarring of the genitals. In severe cases, the scar tissue may affect the function of the clitoris.
  • Clitoral adhesions can occur when the clitoral hood sticks to the glans and can no longer fully retract. These adhesions can be mild to severe and may lead to clitoral pain.

The causes of clitoral adhesions can vary and are not fully understood. Risk factors appear to include genital injury, yeast infectionsurinary tract infections, lichen sclerosus, and hormonal imbalances. Minimally invasive surgery may be a treatment option.

Recap

Most conditions affecting the clitoris, such as a yeast infection, are relatively easy to treat. Other changes in the clitoris may signal an underlying medical condition. This may include cancer that has spread from elsewhere in the body. If you have concerns, talk to your healthcare provider or OB/GYN. In rare cases, you may need to see a specialist.

Medical Tests

It is relatively rare to need any medical tests for the clitoris. If there are changes in its size or shape, a biopsy may help to determine the cause. For some people at risk of a spreading cancer, imaging may be used too.

The one exception is when infants are born with clitoromegaly. Healthcare providers will often try to determine the cause of the enlarged clitoris. This may involve blood tests to check hormone levels, or genetic tests to look for different potential intersex conditions. Understanding the cause may offer insight into an infant's gender identity and affect how parents choose to raise their child.

Female Circumcision

Female circumcision is also known as female genital mutilation (FGM). In this practice, the clitoris is removed. This prevents a woman from feeling pleasure during sex. It is often done as a girl reaches puberty. FGM is traditionally practiced in some African, Middle Eastern, and Asian countries. It is now illegal in many places but still continues in some countries.

Summary

The clitoris plays a central role in sexual stimulation and pleasure in people who are assigned female at birth. it has a small nub that you can see. But most of the clitoris is found inside the body where you can't see it, which in the past has meant that less is known about how it actually works.

Health issues related to the clitoris are relatively rare and, in most cases, easily treated. One of the more serious concerns is an enlarged clitoris at birth that may point to an intersex condition. Or, if the clitoris becomes enlarged later in children, it may be a sign of a genetic nervous system disorder called neurofibromatosis. This condition causes tumors and requires treatment. If you have concerns about how the clitoris looks or feels, be sure to contact your healthcare provider.

A Word From Verywell


There is still much to learn about the erectile tissue of the clitoris and how its role connects with that of other structures of the pelvis. Each person has their own level of sensitivity and preferences when it comes to stimulating the glans clitoris. It's best to try varying levels of pressure and techniques to find what works best for you.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is an internal clitoris?

    The portions of the organ located inside the body that account for most of its size and contain all of its erectile tissue.

  • How do you find the clitoris?

    The glans clitoris (external clitoris) is located above the urethral opening at the junction of the labia minor (inner labia) and is covered by a retractable clitoral hood. The rest is internal and connects to the glans.

  • How big is the clitoris?

    The length from the tip of the glans to the end of each crura is approximately 9 cm (4 inches). The external glans is about 2.5 cm (about 3/4 inch to 1 inch) and has a similar diameter.

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9 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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