What Is Feminization?

The process of making one's appearance more feminine through therapy and surgery

Feminization is the process through which a transfeminine person makes their face and body more feminine through hormone therapy and/or gender-affirming surgery. This process is part of medical transitioning.

A transgender woman (someone who was assigned male and is a woman) may seek out feminization because she wants her appearance to affirm her gender identity. The therapy and procedures she undergoes will focus on removing masculine characteristics (such as Adam's apple) and inducing or adding feminine characteristics (such as breast augmentation) to her appearance.


A transgender person is someone who identifies with a gender that is different from the one associated with their assigned sex at birth.

Gender transition is a process transgender people go through to align with their desired gender. Not all transgender people will want therapy or surgery as part of their gender transitioning.

Besides medical transitioning, transgender people may also go through social transitioning, which includes changing their name, pronouns, and gender expression (the way someone represents their felt gender to others).

Woman portrait

Victoria Holguin / Getty Images

Gender Identity

Gender theorist Judith Butler said that someone’s gender is socially constructed through their environment and the people who surround them. If someone’s family treats an individual like one gender, the individual may perceive their own gender that way.

Transgender people may struggle with gender identity early on in their childhood and later on in life and experience gender dysphoria (feeling like their gender assigned at birth does not line up with the gender they identify with).

Transfeminine people may choose to undergo medical feminizing procedures to express their gender in a more authentic way. These procedures and therapy can allow a transgender person to feel more comfortable with their body.

Hormone Therapy

Feminization through hormonal therapy, also called feminizing hormone therapy, is achieved by two mechanisms: suppressing androgen effects and inducing traditionally feminine physical characteristics. This is done with the use of prescription anti-androgens and estrogen.

To suppress androgens, a doctor may prescribe medications that:

  • Disrupt the binding of androgen to its target areas.
  • Interfere with the production of testosterone and metabolism of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.
  • Suppress the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which regulates the production of luteinizing hormones.
  • Interrupt the production of luteinizing hormones, which cause the testicles to make testosterone.

These hormones promote the development of adult masculine features.

To induce feminine physical characteristics, a doctor will prescribe an estrogen, which can feminize a person by changing fat distribution, inducing breast formation, and reducing androgenic alopecia.


Estrogen is a mainstay in feminizing hormone therapy, but alone, it is not usually enough to achieve desirable androgen suppression. Adjunctive anti-androgenic therapy is also usually necessary.

Estrogen can be taken orally, by injection, or through a skin patch. There are pros and cons of each method.

  • Intramuscularly (IM) estrogen is typically injected once per week or once every two weeks.
  • Estrogen skin patches and topical gels may be placed on the skin daily or once per week, depending on the formulation.
  • Oral estrogens, which are usually taken daily, can pose risks, including a risk of blood clots.


Anti-androgenic drugs are prescribed for transgender women and can prevent erections, facial hair growth, and male baldness.

Anti-androgens include:

  • Spironolactone is used to reduce body hair and hormonal acne.
  • Cyproterone reduces masculine traits. Side effects include depression and elevated liver enzymes. It's currently not used in the United States due to concerns about liver toxicity.
  • Histrelin is used for transgender youth to block puberty. Starting puberty blockers at a young age may prevent facial hair growth, broadening of the shoulders, and the enlargement of genitals.

Side effects of anti-androgens include:

  • Low libido
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Liver injury
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin rash
  • Hot flashes

Within the first year of hormone therapy, body fat will be redistributed, there will be a decrease in muscle mass, and the skin will soften. After three to six months, breast growth may occur.

Gender Affirmation Surgery

Gender affirmation surgery was previously known as sex reassignment surgery. The updated name is used because the procedure is now recognized as affirming a person's gender identity, rather than changing it.

Typically, after a year of hormone therapy, surgical procedures can begin.

  • Gender affirmation surgery encompasses many different types of facial and body feminization surgeries.
  • Body feminization procedures are further subdivided into top and bottom surgeries.

Hospitals generally offer gender affirmation surgery through their department or center for transgender medicine.

Facial Feminization Surgery

Facial feminization surgery involves cosmetic surgeries that feminize facial characteristics. These procedures can be done over time or all at once.

Facial feminization surgeries include:

  • Brow lifts: Feminize the shape and position of the eyebrows
  • Jaw surgery: Includes shaving down the jaw bone to soften the angle
  • Rhinoplasty: Narrows the nose
  • Chin reduction: Softens the chin's angles
  • Cheekbone augmentation: May be enhanced with collagen injections
  • Hairline alteration: Reduces baldness
  • Tracheal shave: Reduces the size of the Adam's apple


Gluteoplasty is performed to create a more round and full butt using fat grafting from other areas of the body. The body takes time—up to a year—to form new blood vessels and for the results to be noticeable.

Gluteoplasty can also be done with butt implants, which are inserted to enhance the area. This is an option for people who don't have as much body fat. Large implants are associated with implant rupture and scar tissue around the implant.

Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation surgery may enhance the size, shape, and fullness of the breasts of transgender women. During surgery, saline or silicone implants are placed near the chest wall muscle.


A penectomy removes parts or all of the penis. A total penectomy removes the entire penis, where the doctor will create a new urinary opening.


This surgery removes the testes, which reduces the production of testosterone. An orchiectomy is an option for someone who isn't able to take hormone medications or testosterone blockers. Once the testes are removed, transgender women receive low doses of estrogen.


Also called transfeminine bottom surgery, vaginoplasty creates a vagina from the inverted skin of the penis.

After the surgery, patients will begin to dilate their vagina with dilators, which are cone-shaped objects that keep the vaginal canal open. Typically, a set of dilators are provided by the surgeon. There will be tenderness when inserting the dilator with a water-based lubricant.

After vaginoplasty, women can still have orgasms through clitoral stimulation.


A vulvoplasty procedure creates the areas outside of the vagina canal. The surgeon will create a clitoris, an inner and outer labia, an opening of the urethra, and an opening of the vagina.

Vocal Feminization

Transgender women may also opt to undergo feminization of the voice. Surgical procedures include shortening and thinning the vocal folds. This will make a person's voice a pitch higher.

Voice therapy with a speech pathologist will help modify the sound and pitch of the voice after surgery.

A Word From Verywell

Not every transgender person looks into surgery—that choice is their own. However, many transgender people do consider surgical alterations in order to physically align with their gender. Feminization procedures and therapies can reduce emotional distress and improve the quality of life for transgender women and transfeminine nonbinary people. Counseling, hormones, and operations, however, come with a huge price tag. Insurance may not cover the expenses.

If you're interested in feminization surgery or therapy, consult a doctor, educate yourself about your options, and remember that this is your journey.

7 Sources
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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  3. Leinung MC, Feustel PJ, Joseph J. Hormonal treatment of transgender women with oral estradiol. Transgend Health. 2018;3(1):74-81.

  4. Ashbee O, Goldberg JM. Hormones: A guide for MTFs. 2006:1-18.

  5. Kim JH, Yoo BW, Yang WJ. Hepatic failure induced by cyproterone acetate: A case report and literature review. Canadian Urological Association Journal. 2014;8(5-6):e458-61. doi:10.5489/cuaj.1753

  6. Kim H-T. Vocal feminization for transgender women: current strategies and patient perspectives. Int J Gen Med. 2020;13:43-52. doi:10.2147%2FIJGM.S205102

  7. Lagos D. Hearing gender: voice-based gender classification processes and transgender health inequality. Am Sociol Rev. 2019;84(5):801-827. doi:10.1300/J485v09n03_08

By S. Nicole Lane
S. Nicole Lane is a freelance health journalist focusing on sexual health and LGBTQ wellness. She is also the editorial associate for the Chicago Reader.